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首頁 專題 伊斯蘭研究 CHENG Pang Ching Patrick: To Call or To War? Both Qur'anic Way?
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週二, 17 十二月 2013 09:40

To Call or To War?  Both Qur'anic Way?

Referee: Dr. Benedict Kwok
Anthor: CHENG Pang Ching Patrick

1.0 Introduction

What is the mission of Islam?  How should Islam be spread according to the sacred text, the Qur'an?In the post-911 era, the standard political correct answer is all too familiar: “The Qur’an categorically affirms this by saying, “There is no compulsion in religion. The right direction is henceforth distinct from error” (2:256). The gracious mission of the Umma is to proclaim the message of Islam peacefully to all people of the world, and to invite all humankind into the Dar al Islam (region of peace) which is the Umma. “[1] Yet, there are other voices on how Islam should be spread.  Ali Issa Othman, ex-adviser to the United Nations Relief and Works Agency (UNRWA), states, “The spread of Islam was military. There is a tendency to apologise for this and we should not. It is one of the injunctions of the Qur'an that you must fight for the spreading of Islam. . . . Fighting for God (Jihad) has a wider meaning. It may be militant, or it may be evangelical, in the Christian sense. The militant is not excluded. This is because, according to the Qur'an, communities have always resisted a prophet’s offer of guidance from God.”[2]

 

It is the reality of Islam today.  To counter the “spread by sword” stereotyping, Islam apologists are eager to bring out the peaceful image of Islam.  Yet, time and again, we saw violent attacks done by professing Muslims groups or individuals.  It is curious that both were confident that they have the backing of the Qur'an.  How can the two opposite conclusions be drawn from the same text?  To answer this questions, we need to first examine the evidences about spread of Islam in the Qur'an.     The we examine interpretation approaches used on the Qu'ran to get to each conclusions.

 

2.0  Qur'anic Support of Peaceful Propagation of Islam

2.1  No Compulsion and Free Choice

While there are many verses in the Qur'an that urges the Prophet and, hence, the Muslims that they should be patient and merciful towards the non-Muslims, especially when the non-Muslims failed to heed the call to Islam, the “No compulsion in religion” verse is the most quoted verse that show the “base line” of the peaceful propagation of Islam.  Here is the full verse:

There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong. So whoever disbelieves in Taghut and believes in Allah has grasped the most trustworthy handhold with no break in it. And Allah is Hearing and Knowing.” (2:256)[3]

Ibn Kathir, a Syrian jurist of the 14th century, commented on the verse.  He emphasizes that one cannot force conversion to Islam and it is Allah who brings a person to belief: ‘Do not force anyone to become Muslim, for Islam is plain and clear, and its proofs and evidence are plain and clear. Therefore, there is no need to force anyone to embrace Islam. Rather, whoever Allah directs to Islam, opens his heart for it and enlightens his mind, will embrace Islam with certainty.’[4]

 

Zamakhshari, a 12th century Persian born scholar, reasoned that “God does not allow belief through compulsion and coercion, but through strengthening and free choice”[5] To further showed that God treasured the free will of human kind, Zamakhshari quoted another verse[6]:

And had your Lord willed, those on earth would have believed - all of them entirely. Then, [O Muhammad], would you compel the people in order that they become believers? (10:99)

When the 20th century Islamic theorist Sayyid Qutb argued for Muslims' commitment to defensive jihad, he first cited the “no compulsion” verse to clarify the aim of war.  He saw that this verse proved that Islam does not call on Muslims to force other to believe.[7] Qutb believed that the idea of coercing infidels abrogates the essence of religion.[8] War is thus not a mean to convert people to Muslims but to establish a just society of Islamic ideal.[9]

 

If not by “compulsion”, then how should Islam be spread according to the Qur'an?

2.2  The Call and Invitation to Islam (Da'wa)

And let there be [arising] from you a nation inviting to [all that is] good, enjoining what is right and forbidding what is wrong, and those will be the successful. (3:104)

The Arabic word da'wa expresses the sense of "call" or "invitation". It comes from the verb da 'a, "to call".[10] Often considered analogous conceptually to Christianity's “Mission”, yet, while “mission”  implies “sending out”, Da'wa implies an action “calling into”.[11] The sense of invitation and call suggests that the target audience of Da'wa is under no coercion, and acceptation of the call (or the rejection) is based solely on the free will of the audience.  The content of the invitation (“enjoing what is right”, “forbidding what is wrong”) is the Qur'anic notion of the norms of belief and ethics, obeying Allah and His commands and instructions.[12] Notice that, under this definition, one may see that the daily Shahadah, one of the five pillars of Islam, as a work of Da'wa. This pillar is shahadah, which means "a declaration of faith," or literally, "witness," or "testimony." The Mosque leaders call out this declaration of faith (Allah is great and Mohammad is His Prophet) five times and includes an invitation to "prayer and good works”.  And since the repetition of shahadah is mandatory to all Muslims, thus it could be said that the whole Umma is involve in the task of Da'wa.[13]

2.2.1 Rational Invitation to the  Jews and Christians

According to one Islamic tradition, the “no compulsion” verse was revealed to Mohammad when an Ansar woman was considering whether to abandon her children who were raised according to the Jewish religion.[14] Another tradition suggested the verse was revealed when the Prophet was asked by a father about his Christian sons who refused to convert to Islam. [15] The Prophet in both cases saw no need to force them because he was confident about message of Islam: “The right course has become clear from the false”.

 

The Qur'an sees that these People of the Book are the target of Da'wa, i.e. they are to be invited to examine the message of Islam for themselves:

Say, "O People of the Scripture, come to a word that is equitable between us and you - that we will not worship except Allah and not associate anything with Him and not take one another as lords instead of Allah ." But if they turn away, then say, "Bear witness that we are Muslims [submitting to Him]." (3:64)

In this Qur'anic verse, the Prophet was instructed to invite the Jews and Christians to examine for themselves the truth of the monotheistic Islam religion.  This verse and the verses that follows in this surah (chapter) were part of a polemic, yet rational argument showing that the Jews and Christians had gone astray from the true knowledge (3:64-68). The Qur'an declared that Abraham was a muslim (one submitting to God) and worship only the one God (3:67).  Hans Küng commented that in this way the Qur'an proclaimed the priority of Islam over the Judaism and Christianity in terms of time and content.[16] Muslims are the ones who worship God as Abraham did by submitting fully to God and believe in the true revelation via the Prophet. God is the ally of the community (Umma) (3:68) and Jews and Christians are the outsiders.  The Da'wa is an rational invitation into this (Islamic) alliance with God.

 

2.2.2 Tolerance to Religions

Despite the Qur'an views the Jews and Christians as outsiders, many places in the Qur'an show tolerance to other (monotheistic) religions.  For example, verse 10:99 quoted earlier indicated that it is God's will to tolerate people to choose other religion other than Islam.  Indeed, some scholars even suggest that there are hints of pluralism in the Qur'an.   Küng believed that the Qur'an acknowledges multiple ways to salvation: “To each of you We prescribed a law and a method.”, and that it is the very will of God that there are difference of religion amongst human race: “Had Allah willed, He would have made you one nation [united in religion], but [He intended] to test you in what He has given you; so race to [all that is] good.”(5:48)[17] Kerr pointed out the following verse to show that there is Qur'anic support for a revisionist view or even ecumenical view (religious pluralism) towards other religions:[18]

Indeed, those who believed and those who were Jews or Christians or Sabeans [before Prophet Muhammad] - those [among them] who believed in Allah and the Last Day and did righteousness - will have their reward with their Lord, and no fear will there be concerning them, nor will they grieve. (2:62; 5:69)

Kerr pointed out the revisionists see the verse as a concede to the fact there will be multiple religions, but still see there is a need for da 'wa to “invite" these religions to confessional acceptance of Islam.[19] Since these believers of other religions already have good conducts and sound faith, it is the duty of Da'wa to show that Islam is better in every way (16:125) .[20] The ecumenical interpretation goes even further to see this verse as Qur'anic confirmation of religious pluralism.  The aim of Da'wa then is not about converting people to Islam but rather a call to “universal religious brotherhood”.[21]

 

In summary, judging from the verses like the one mentioned above, the Qur'an shows much tolerance towards other religions as long as they promote good ethics and believe in the one God.  And, indeed, it may be acceptable to the Qur'an for a person to stay in his religion even after he receive the call.

3.0  Qur'anic Support for Violent Propagation of Islam

In the previous section we have examined the claim that the Qur'an supports peaceful spread of Islam.   We saw that Muslims were commanded to invite people to Islam.  We all found that there are indeed evidences that the Qur'an does not see forced conversion as an alternative.   There are  verses of tolerance towards other religions.  However, as we further examine the Qur'an, we will find there are permissions to rage wars against non-believers.  In fact, there are some explicit Qur'anic commands that instructed people to rise up to fight non-believers!

3.1 Warfare for Defense and Retribution against Aggressors

Before we begin, care should be taken when examining the Qur'an verses concerning wars.  One should not misguided by the preconception that all Islamic wars were fought for the expansion of Islam.  In fact, many so called jihad verses are about how to conduct defensive warfare, for example:

Permission [to fight] has been given to those who are being fought, because they were wronged. And indeed, Allah is competent to give them victory. [They are] those who have been evicted from their homes without right - only because they say, "Our Lord is Allah ." ... And Allah will surely support those who support Him. Indeed, Allah is Powerful and Exalted in Might. (22:39-40)

Here the Qur'an the people to fight back in defense.  In fact, in the context, these verses sanction fighting in retribution and for compensation against those who persecuted the Muslims because of their religion.[22] So a battle could be initiated by the Muslims, but since it is against an existing aggressor, it is still defensive in nature.

 

However, of note is how far an defensive war can be pushed.  Kateregga commented war against the Byzantine and Persian were initiated because of the threat against the Prophet and the Islamic state.  The decades of war that followed even after the Prophet's death was a result of pushing the war to the “logical conclusion”.  The state of the Islam growth astronomically during that decades.  One cannot but wonder whether that “defensive” claim is entirely genuine.[23]

3.2 Expanding the Abode of Islam by War

While there are other chapters and verses that may support fighting for the course of Islam, Sura (Chpater) 9 of the Qur'an is of particular importance to our study.   First, this chapter is the only chapter of the Qur'an that is not preceded by the phrase “In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful,” which in itself hinted at the martial nature of the text.[24] Second, this is the chapter that contains the infamous “sword verse” (9:5).

3.2.1 War with the Non-Muslims

And when the sacred months have passed, then kill the polytheists wherever you find them and capture them and besiege them and sit in wait for them at every place of ambush. But if they should repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, let them [go] on their way. Indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. (9:5)

Notice that only options for the “polytheists” are either be killed or “repent, establish prayer, and give zakah”.  Giving zakah (alms) and prayer are two of the five pillars of faith of Islam.  These and combining the requirement of repenting of polytheistic way mean “becoming Muslim”.  While its immediate subject is the pagan Arabs— a narrow application sustained by early commentators— later Muslim jurists would use the verse to proclaim a universal jihad against all non-Muslims.

This verse is said to abrogate all other verses in the Qur an on the subject of war and peace.[25]

3.2.2 War with the People of the Book

Fight those who do not believe in Allah or in the Last Day and who do not consider unlawful what Allah and His Messenger have made unlawful and who do not adopt the religion of truth from those who were given the Scripture - [fight] until they give the jizyah willingly while they are humbled. (9:29)

The people of the book are to be “humbled”.  They are to be subjugated.  Verses like this in the chapter would dictate the social system of Islam for centuries to come. One of the goals of jihad was to conquer and dominate non-Muslims.[26]

3.2.3 War in the Cause of God

Indeed, Allah has purchased from the believers their lives and their properties [in exchange] for that they will have Paradise. They fight in the cause of Allah , so they kill and are killed. [It is] a true promise [binding] upon Him in the Torah and the Gospel and the Qur'an. And who is truer to his covenant than Allah ? So rejoice in your transaction which you have contracted. And it is that which is the great attainment. (9:111)

In the defensive wars, God promised “to give victory”.  Now, when they war, Muslims are fighting the cause of God.  God is no longer just their helper.  God is their sponsor, they are His mercenaries bound by a covenant in contractual terms. The Muslims’ lives and wealth are given to Allah in exchange for an assurance of Paradise.[27]

One may notice that these verses had a specific context, namely wars against Meccan and the Medinan Jews and Christians.  Can these Qur'anic words supports the “spreading by war” claim?  This is legitimate question.  In the next section, we will see how hadith make use of the Qur'an and how the context of the hadith takes precedence.

4.0 Resolving the Tensions

4.1 Resolving Tension with Traditions of the Prophet (hadith)

Clearly, to resolve this problem of reconciling these two opposing sets of Qur'anic verses, we need an ultimate authority, a regula fidei.  The classical method is to based the authority on the traditions of the Prophet – the hadith. Although, arguably many in Islam world has move on to other “paradigm” (using Han Küng's “paradigm shift” terminology), it would be worthwhile to examine the theory and operation of hadith-based exegesis for two reasons.  First, the classical era lasted for more than 500 years (P III 750-1258, as defined by Küng[28]), it's legacy still resonance in later paradigms.  Second, there is a tendency for conservatives and radical groups to subscribe back to the “golden days” of Islam.

 

During classical Islam  Qur'anic exegesis were performed by the legal scholars who had to act as exegetes of Qur'an for all legal questions.  The schools of law drew supports from the Qur'an, with a tendency to read ideas into the Qur'an.  A referee was needed.  Thus the hadith, the traditions of the Prophet of God, became increasingly important as a basis for interpreting the Qur'an.  It was determined at the time that the divinely inspired and authorized words and actions of the Prophet had the authority to interpret the Qur'an, and not vice versa.[29]

 

It is certainly not hard to draw support for military expansion of Islam in the hadith.  Most hadiths, especially those considered to be cannonical, contain a section of jihad (warfare).   The jihad sections contain sayings ascribed to Muhammad enjoining jihad and declaring its limitations, and pseudo-historical anecdotals  from his battles mingled with verses from the Qur’an corresponding to the subject. [30]

 

Additionally, in the compilations of hadiths, there are visions and prophecies which show God's sanctions of the conquests performed after Muhammad's death. [31] Because of the miracle of the conquests, jihad emerged as one of the core elements of Islam.  Without the conquests, the religion would not have had the opportunity to spread in the way that it did, nor would it have been the attractant that it was.  Islam was not in fact “spread by the sword”  – conversion was not forced on the occupants of conquered territories – but the conquests created the necessary preconditions for the spread of Islam.[32]

And the priority of hadith authority in faith made the context of the Qur'anic verses almost almost unnecessary.  The hadith is the context of the Qur'anic verses.  And, as we may see below, the Qur'an verses become the proof-text of the hadith.

4.1.1 Jihad and Da'wa – According to the Hadith

In the previous section, we have examined 3:64 of the Qur'an and come to the conclusion that it represents the Qur'an rational invitation to the People of the Book to embrace Islam.  However, the context of the revelation of this verse, according to the hadith, may betray a less peaceful interpretation. According to some commentaries and hadiths, Qur'an 3:64 was first revealed and included in Muhammad's letters to the head of states of the world.  [33] In particular, one of the letter was directed to Heraclius, emperor of the Byzantine Empire at that time. It read as follows:

"In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful (This letter is) from Muhammad the slave of Allah and His Apostle to Heraclius the ruler of Byzantine. Peace be upon him, who follows the right path. Furthermore I invite you to Islam, and if you become a Muslim you will be safe, and Allah will double your reward, and if you reject this invitation of Islam you will be committing a sin by misguiding your Arisiyin (peasants). (And I recite to you Allah's Statement:) 'O people of the scripture! Come to a word common to you and us that we worship none but Allah and that we associate nothing in worship with Him, and that none of us shall take others as Lords beside Allah. Then, if they turn away, say: Bear witness that we are Muslims (those who have surrendered to Allah).'”[34]

Notice the content of this letter: 1) the Prophet acknowledge Heraclius “follows the right path” (since Heraclius was a Christian, “people of the scripture”); 2) Invitation to Islam (Da'wa); 3) Conversion will grant Heraclius safety; 4) rejecting the call is a sin; 5) Qur'anic revelation sealing the letter at the end.  According to the hadith Sahih Bukhari, one of Sunni's most trusted collection of hadith, the emperor and the royal court was terrorized by the message.[35]

 

To them the message was clear: Heed the Call from God and His Prophet or otherwise!  We may conclude that this Da'wa letter was understood in the traditions as an ultimatum to the Byzantine Emperor.  The comment of the letter bearer further the threatening nature of the letter: “Then I started to become sure that he (the Prophet) would be the conqueror in the near future till I embraced Islam”[36] By painting the Prophet as a God sanctioned conqueror, the hadith effectively turned da'wa into nothing more than a prelude to war.

 

Similary, in another hadith, accordingly, the Prophet would instruct his commander before each battle: “When you meet your polytheist enemy, call to him [to choose] between three possibilities – accept whichever one they accept, and desist from them: 1. Call them to Islam; if they accept, then accept it from them and desist from them. … 2. If they refuse, then call them to pay jizya [poll tax].  If they accept, then accept it from them and desist from them. 3.  If they refuse, then ask Allah for aid against them, and fight them. ...”[37]

 

To summarize, we see from above hadiths that the peaceful call to Islam required by the Qur'an was interpreted as a part of the protocol for war initiation.  In order words, people/communities which refuse to heed the invitation to Islam become legitimate target of subjugation or be conquered by military action.  No matter the choice, the abode of Islam (religion and/or state) expanded.  The original context of verse (i.e. part of the “Abrahmic faith” rational argument within the sura) was forgotten in the hadith.

4.2 Resolving Tension with Abrogation

4.2.1 Principle of Abrogation

Complementing the overall authority of the traditions of Muhammad over the interpretation Qur'an is the concept of abrogation of Qur'anic verses. To the Muslims, the Qur'an is the book and words of God and naturally is free from error and contradiction.  Even if there are apparent incompatibilities between verses, Muslim exegetes would utilize the principle of abrogation to resolve them.  The concept of abrogation is based on the belief that God revealed His word gradually to cater for the inability of humankind to receive and absorb all the divine truth at once.[38] As a result, verses in the Qur'an that at first contradict each may just be a matter of revelation order rather than inherently incompatible.[39] To differentiate the verses which need to be abrogated and the ones that abrogate, Muslim exegetes have insisted  that it is vital to identify precisely the historical context of every Qur'nic text.  The context of revelation anchor the text in the actual experiences of the early community and life events of the Prophet.[40]

4.2.2 Abrogating the Peaceful Verses with Violent Ones

And it is through examining and categorizing the different phases of Muhammad's prophetic mission that the “pecking order” of the peace/war verses was determined by Islam scholars.  Many Muslim scholars from the classical era, who were abrogation theory supporters, would argue that there was a gradual changes in God's revelation to Muhammad concerning relationship with non-Muslim.[41] The life of Muhammad the growth of the community can be divided into three phases.  The first phase is from 610 till 622, whence God commanded restraint.  After the hajj migration to Medina (623-26), only defensive wars were allowed.  However, in the final six years of Muhammad's life(626-32), God finally permitted Muslims to engage in aggressive warfare against polytheists, and later against monotheists like the Jews of Khaybar.[42]

 

For example, early Mecca era is considered an era that God commanded patience and perseverance via pacifism and non-violent resistance in the face of oppression and brutality. Hence, Qur'anic revelations which were received during that era (e.g. “So be patient, [O Muhammad], over what they say and exalt [ Allah ] with praise of your Lord before the rising of the sun and before its setting” (50:39)) should be abrogated by the unconditional commands revealed in Medina (e.g. the “sword verse”  “kill them [the unbelievers] wherever you encounter them” (9:5))

 

With the above abrogation principle and with hadith's context and agenda taking precedence in interpreting the Qur'an, Muslims groups which subscripted to “classic era Islam” can easily resolved the conflicts between “peace” and “war” verses and come to the conclusion that Islam should be spread by might (in addition to by tongue).

5.0 Resolving Tension with Context and Reason (Conditional/Unconditional Clauses)

If one rejected the abrogation principle and take the Qur'an's verses context serious, can the contradiction between “peace” and “war” verses be resolved?  Mavani proposed  one could resolved the tension by enforcing the principle that “unconditional” should be limited by “conditional” verse, whether the conditional verse is local in context or in thematic context. [43]

 

Many verses which support an unconditional violent way of spreading Islam actually have conditional clauses attached to them.  For example:

And kill them wherever you overtake them and expel them from wherever they have expelled you, and fitnah is worse than killing. And do not fight them at al-Masjid al- Haram until they fight you there. But if they fight you, then kill them. Such is the recompense of the disbelievers. And if they cease, then indeed, Allah is Forgiving and Merciful. Fight them until there is no [more] fitnah and [until] worship is [acknowledged to be] for Allah . But if they cease, then there is to be no aggression except against the oppressors. (2:191-93)

The conditional nature of this permission to kill is proven by the clause instructing Muslims to end the conflict as soon as the enemy camp agrees to do so.  Therefore, this verse can be categorized under 'self defense'. [44]The conditional permission to fight is, in actuality, conditional upon the enemy initiating the attack. [45]

 

Here is an example of verses in conflict in thematic context:

So whoever has assaulted you, then assault him in the same way that he has assaulted you. And fear Allah and know that Allah is with those who fear Him. (2:194);

And fight against the disbelievers collectively as they fight against you collectively. And know that Allah is with the righteous [who fear Him].(9:36)

Here we should recognized that with the two thematic verses, one is conditional in nature “assault him in the same way” and one is unconditional “fight against the disbelievers collectively”.  Again the principle employed to reconcile apparently conflicting verses is that the 'unconditional verses' must be governed and regulated by the restrictions laid out in the 'conditional' verses. [46]

 

In this way, the conditional “defensive wars” verses will put restriction to all the unconditional war”  and the unconditional “no compulsion” meets no restriction.  We then come to the “desired” conclusion of Qur'anic support peaceful way of Islamic spread.

6.0 Conclusion

As we have seen in this essay, in the Qur'an there are verses that support peaceful spread of Islam , as well as those for propagation via conquests.  It all depends on the hermeneutic principles one uses and  authorities one draw on during the exegesis.  And we have seen that by choosing a particular principle, one can get to either conclusion.  In truth, it all depends on the exegetes.

 

In his book Islam: Past, Present and Future, Hans Kung uses “paradigm changes” to describes the radical changes between each stage of Islam's development as a religion and community.  The abiding substance of Islamic faith never changes: 'There is no God but God, and Muhammad is his Prophet', Muhammad is the Seal of the Prophets and the Qur'an as God's word and book.[47] The substance may stay the same, but the understanding of them changes as the sociopolitical of the faith community and the world around them as time moves on.

 

Thus it is not surprising to see in what Kung called “Contemporary Paradigm” or, more aptly “Postmodern Paradigm”,[48] the university scholars and Islam apologists and Western Muslims in general tend to be more suspicious of Traditions.  They are ready to reject traditional interpretation of the Qur'an if that interpretation is in conflict with the universal values like tolerance.  The offensive jihad theory, that was formulated by the jurists and based ultimately on the hadith interpretation of the Qur'an, is down right unacceptable to them.  Mavani's comment may illustrate this view:

“Hadith compilations and historical scholarly works should be regarded as tentative and therefore open to scrutiny and reappraisal to prevent time and place-bound human theories and interpretations from being 'absolutized' or given the status of normativity. …  Failing to do so would likely allow the Qur'anic worldview on war and peace to be overwhelmed by enabling these all-too-human (and thus limited) works to attain the status of infallibility and sanctification. This would constitute a form of idolatry (shirk) and injustice.”[49]

 

However, it is questionable if many Muslims are ready or willing to move on to this “Postmodern” paradigm.  The Hadith is the teaching and life records of God's Prophet!  As we have seen, the hadiths support the abrogation and supports offensive jihads  in general.  Going back to Kung's “paradigm changes”, we see the phenomenon that people would subscribe back to a paradigm of previous era, identifying themselves with the faith community of that era, refusing to move on.  In the mean time, Muslims who are not willing to give up the hadiths precedence in interpretation should be honest face that conclusion, as did the speaker in the introduction of this essay: “ It is one of the injunctions of the Qur'an that you must fight for the spreading of Islam

 



[1] Kateregga, Badru D, Shenk, David W, A Muslim and a Christian in Dialogue, Updated Edition. Kindle Edition (Harrisonburg: Herald Press, 2011), Chapter 12, Location 1564

[2] Charis Waddy, The Muslim Mind, 2nd ed. (New York: Longman, 1982), p. 100.: Quoted by Hauser, Albrecht, “Da‘wah: Islamic Mission and Its Current Implications”, International Bulletin of Missionary Research, Vol. 36, No. 4 (October, 2012), 190

[3] All quotations of Qur'an in this essay is from The Qur'an, Sahih International;

[4] Quran Tafsir Ibn Kathir, available from <http://www.qtafsir.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=138 >,  quoted in Munster, A 2008, ''Let there be no compulsion in religion' Tafsir comparison on the verse 2:256', Evangelical Quarterly, 80, 3, p.258

[5] Helmut Gatje, The Qur’a¯n and its Exegesis (reprint ed.; Oxford: Oneworld, 2004), 215.; cited by Munster , “ Let there be no compulsion in religion”, p.256

[6] Ibid

[7] Abdelkader, Deina. "Coercion, Peace, and the Issue of Jihad." DOMES: Digest Of Middle East Studies 20, no. 2 (Fall2011 2011): 181

[8] Ibid

[9] Ibid

[10] Kerr, David A. "Islamic Daʼwa and Christian Mission : Towards a Comparative Analysis." International Review Of Mission 89, no. 353 (2000): 151

[11] Ibid

[12] Ibid

[13] Wagner, William L. "A comparison of Christian missions and Islamic daʼwah." Missiology 31, no. 3 (July 1, 2003): 343-344

[14] Munster,  ''Let there be no compulsion in religion', 258

[15] Ibid 257

[16] Küng, Hans. Islam: Past Present and Future. Translated by John Bowden. Oxford: Oneworld, 2008, 110

[17] Ibid 109

[18] Kerr, "Islamic Daʼwa and Christian Mission”, 162

[19] Ibid 162

[20] Ibid 162

[21] Ibid 162

[22] Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. Berkley: University of California Press, 2005, 7

[23] Kateregga, Badru D, Shenk, David W, A Muslim and a Christian in Dialogue, Updated Edition. Kindle Edition (Harrisonburg: Herald Press, 2011), Chapter 12, Location 1571

[24] Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. Berkley: University of California Press, 2005, 20

[25] Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. Berkley: University of California Press, 2005, 10

[26] Ibid

[27] Ibid 20

[28] Küng, Hans. Islam: Past Present and Future. Translated by John Bowden. Oxford: Oneworld, 2008, 584

[29] Ibid 521

[30] Cook, David. “Islamism and Jihadism: The Transformation of Classical Notions of Jihad into an Ideology of Terrorism”, Totalitarian Movements and Political Religions,Vol. 10, No. 2, 177–187, (June 2009), 177-8

[31] Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. Berkley: University of California Press, 2005, 13

[32] Ibid 10

[33] Hauser, Albrecht, “Da‘wah: Islamic Mission and Its Current Implications”, International Bulletin of Missionary Research, Vol. 36, No. 4 (October, 2012), 189

[36] Ibid

[37] Ibn. Al-Mubarak, Al Jihad, no. 105; Quoted by Cook, David. Understanding Jihad. Berkley: University of California Press, 2005, 19-20

[38] Renard, John. Islam and Christianity:Theological Themes in Comparative Perspective. LA:University of California Press, 2011, 33.

[39] Ibid

[40] Renard, John. Islam and Christianity:Theological Themes in Comparative Perspective. LA:University of California Press, 2011, 33.

[41] Mavani, Hamid. “Tension between Qur'an and the Hadith”, Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies, Vol IV, No. 4, (Autumn 2011), 408

[42] Bukay, David. “Peace of Jihad? Abrogation in Islam”, Middle East Quarterly, Vol. 14, Issue 4 (Fall 2007), p3-11

[43] Mavani, Hamid. “Tension between Qur'an and the Hadith”, Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies, Vol IV, No. 4, (Autumn 2011), 410-11

[44] Ibid 407

[45] Ibid 408

[46] Ibid 408

[47] Küng, Hans. Islam: Past Present and Future. Translated by John Bowden. Oxford: Oneworld, 2008, 584

[48] Küng, Hans. Islam: Past Present and Future. Translated by John Bowden. Oxford: Oneworld, 2008, 584

[49] Mavani, Hamid. “Tension between Qur'an and the Hadith”, Journal of Shi'a Islamic Studies, Vol IV, No. 4, (Autumn 2011), 411

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