Cissy Tsang: Has Globalization eradicated/ exacerbated World Poverty? Print
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Wednesday, 30 June 2010 14:36


Has Globalization eradicated/ exacerbated World Poverty?

Referee: Dr. Benedict Kwok
Author: Cissy Tsang


As early as the Christmas of 1967, Martin Luther King’s sermon on Peace recognized the way our universe was structured and our interdependence as people living on earth. Although King does not explicitly refer to it, his words are closely related to what is commonly known today as the phenomenon of globalization, a process that has made us increasingly aware of our interdependence.[1]

2. 40 years ago, last century King was already describing a phenomenon of globalization. Yet, at the beginning of this century, the high density of interactions between people of different nationalities and the rapid interchange of ideas, money and commerce, empowered by advanced information and communication technology, has transformed almost every aspect of human life, which signifies another era of globalization – to Thomas Friedman ( the author of the world is flat ), we are at the third stage of globalization. [2]

Title of my report

3. Globalization has brought new opportunities and challenges; gains and losses; progress and regress to mankind as never before. While much has been written on this subject from a theological, social, economic, political, and cultural perspective, my aim for this paper is to present evidence that Globalization has not eradicated Poverty in the past but has exacerbated Poverty in this world. The problem of poverty is only an embodiment of evil in disguise and will persist until the end of the world. So, if poverty persists, why does the Christian community engaged in poverty eradication programs?

Structure of my report

4. I will divide my report into 5 main sections –

Ø Part I will be an Affirmation of God’s authority over His creation

Ø Part II will be on definitions of the terms,

Ø Part III will discuss the biblical teaching on poverty, and the divine mandate to eradicate poverty

Ø Part IV - The church’s response to global poverty, using case study on the internet and in the book serving the poor in Asia, recording past experience in holistic ministry, the weaknesses and theological perspective

Ø Part V - My own experience with the Friends of India and the Great Commission

5. The report will end on a concluding note that Christian community participated in poverty alleviation program as one way to spread the gospel to the ends of the earth ( Mat 28:18-20 )

Part I

An affirmation that God created the world out of chaos and it was good but why is it in a mess now ?

6. First of all, I want to affirm the truth that God created the world– that when the world was created everything was good ! The Bible said God created the earth – Genesis 1:1 - In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. ( NIV) and I believe so.

7. The record in the beginning of the book of Genesis in the Bible, ie from Genesis 1:1 -2 :3 answered the fundamental questions of who created the world ( heavens and earth ) , and for what purpose ? But why is the world in its present condition ? To me, the world is in the present condition because of Globalization. Although advances in technology, communication, and commerce have facilitated our coming together as a human community as never before, the negative effect of globalization has outweighed the positive contributions. The world today finds itself divided. Market capitalism is entrenched worldwide and has generated enormous wealth for some. Yet it has not alleviated the poverty of much of the world’s population; indeed, the gap between the rich and the poor widens, and many contend that some of the wealth has come at the expense of deepening poverty of many. [3]

8. I agree with Groody that without a critical sense of what it means to be human before God, the current commercial, economic and political agenda disposes us to prizing monetary profit over people, self-interest over the common good, and market logic over gospel imperatives. [4] When God created the world, He has absolute authority over all things; he alone is worthy of worship. The creation account in Genesis teaches that as God made the world, it was ‘very good’.[5] (Gen 1 :31 ) [6]

Where does evil come from ?

9. Genesis speaks of the beginnings of the heavens and earth, of light and darkness, of seas and skies, of land and vegetation, of sun and moon and stars, of sea and air and land animals, of human beings (made in God’s own image, the climax of his creative activity), of marriage and family, of society and civilization, of sin and redemption. The world is in the present condition because of the rebellion ( known as the Fall) - and its Consequences (Gen 3). [7]

10. Through creation, God turned disorder into restful order and emptiness into fullness of abundant life. In this environment, humans enjoyed unbroken fellowship with their creator until their rebellion severed that fellowship and implanted evil in human hearts. The world’s evil does not come from some defect in creation; God put the world under a curse because human rebellion has implanted evil in human hearts. Human beings have the tendency to make wrong and evil decisions as reflected in reality. [8] Some of the negative effects of globalization are the result of evil decisions. For instance, it is now widely recognized that poor ( and not so poor ) communities both North and South are unemployed because the powerful global economic forces – those with wealth and resources, communicate and do business on a global basis. They manufacture where costs are lowest and they invest or deal where profits are highest.[9] Multi-national companies such as Reebok moved their factories away from high cost locations, from USA to China or the Philippines. Many manufacturing jobs in HK were moved to China in the 80’s.

11. Since that first rebellion, humans have been alienated from the Creator and no longer recognized his presence and authority. This alienation results in shameful, fractured relationships with God and other humans, estrangement from the rest of creation, and death. Isn’t it true that what we are having now is a manifestation of what has been said in Genesis after the rebellion ? [10] Their eyes were opened; they suddenly felt shame at their nakedness and covered themselves with leaves from the fig tree. They hid from God because they were ashamed of their nakedness and dared not fellowship with God. The man blamed Eve and Eve blamed the serpent for enticing her to eat the fruit from the tree.

12. But in latter parts of the Bible, it described how God has been working purposefully in history, to restore humans to fellowship with him. God became man and die on the cross for our salvation. It is only through the restoration and acceptance of Jesus Christ as our personal Saviour that we can be new creations ( Gal 6 :15 ) [11]; through Jesus, eternal life is open to all and God will one day renew all things. The whole cosmos will be made new ( Rev 21:1-2 )[12].

The End of the World

13. When his followers asked him for the sign for this age to end, he answered that before the end come there will be wars and stories of wars; nations will fight against nations; kingdoms will fight against kingdoms (Mat 24: 4-14). [13] There will be times when there is no food for people to eat, and there will be earthquakes in different places. There will be more and more evil in the world, so most people will stop showing their love for each other. Yet he also said that the Good News about God’s kingdom will be preached to every nation. So it is my belief that the current Globalization will exacerbate ( speed up ) global poverty because of market capitalism and human greed. As stated in Part IV paragraph 38, around 5 million people in UK, live on an average income below the European poverty line. This shows that Globalization has not eliminated poverty in the developed world. Globalization will not eliminate global poverty but exacerbate it. According to a newspaper report on 2009-11-21 ( Annex A ) that a billion deprived children in Asia and Africa are deprived of food, shelter, clean water or health care two decades after the UN adopted a treaty guaranteeing children’s rights.

Part II - Definitions

So what is Globalization ?

14. Netland wrote in the introduction of his book that Globalization is a multidimensional phenomenon involving politics, economics, science, technology, culture, and religion. Emerging in the 15 th and 16 th centuries, globalization grew out of the processes and institution of modernization. The main patterns of globalization were shaped by the economic institutions and practices of the free market capitalism as well as the political alignments and agendas of the Western powers, as earlier world empires gradually were replaced by the modern nation-state. The Cold War realigned the world politically in terms of bipolar relationships – the first and the second world representing the democratic / capitalist and communist / socialist nations respectively, with the third world resisting such political commitments. The collapse of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War, ushered in a new phase characterized politically not by bipolar but by multi-polar political relationships. [14]

15. Different scholars have different views and definitions for Globalization. However, I tend to agree with Stackhouse that Globalization is global capitalism that manifests the interests of the already rich, leads to the exploitation of the less rich, pollutes the environment. It equates every resource and relationship as a commodity, creates worldwide inequality, and generates a cultural homogeneity that devastates regional diversity.[15] Global capitalism or Globalization is driven by human greed – an insatiable desire to want more of everything to the exploitation of others.

Theological reasons for Globalization [16]

16. Stackhouse stated that the idea of powers coming from the moral and spiritual energies controlling the world became obsolete in many learned circles, especially in view of theories of mechanical and organic causation that dominated much thought in the last couple of centuries. Though no one knows for certain what percentage of life can be explained by mechanical and organic factors, the idea that spiritual and moral energies is present in the world could not be ignored. These energies become distorted when they are corrupted. Christians believe that Christ’s redemption re-establishes a relationship between God and the world, which is alienated from its source and norms. Christians understood that the world is, to a large extent, ruled by powers that shape its ethos. [17] These ethos which governed important principalities in regard to globalization can be identified as Mammon ( Aramaic ) , Mars ( Latin ) , Eros ( Greek ) , and the Muses ( Indo-Aryan ).

17. Having read the three books on God and Globalization, I realize that Mammon is the money god; Mars is the technology god; Eros is the god of human sexual desire and the Muses is the god of creativity. These 4 ethoses affected all areas of our lives.

Consequence of Globalization

18. Besides Poverty, another consequence of globalization is the dramatic changes in worldwide distribution of Christianity. Just over two centuries have elapsed since William Carey published his Enquiry into the Obligations of Christians to Use Means for the Conversion of Heathens ( 1792 ), the religious landscape of the world today is strikingly different from that of Carey’s day. In 1800, Christians overwhelmingly resided in Europe, with newly formed Christian communities ( especially Roma Catholic ) increasingly found in the Americas and Asia. [18]

What is Poverty ?

19. According to the Encyclopedia of Religion and Society [19], the noun ‘Poverty’ is a relative concept –

Ø In the developing world ( such as Latin America or China ) , the poor may include those who are able only (or not able in some cases) to ensure their physical survival.

Ø In the developed countries ( such as USA and Europe ) , where survival needs may be met through social welfare provisions, poverty may be measured in terms of the proportion of income spent to obtain the necessities of life (e.g., food, clothing, shelter).

Ø Theologians and religious leaders see Poverty from a different perspective. Poverty is a disguise of evil.

Ø In traditional Catholicism, Poverty may be viewed as a natural condition, as God's will. Poverty, is one's "lot in life," something to be endured, but something that will eventually give way—at least for the truly believing—to the reward of an eternity in heaven. The poor are to be treated with compassion, and it becomes the moral duty of the more affluent to provide support to the poor through alms or other works of charity.

Ø Some brands of Protestantism, sees poverty as something to be disdained and avoided at all costs. In fact, stemming from the doctrines of John Calvin, the early Protestants came to equate poverty with lack of favor in the eyes of God. Calvin's teaching promoted hard work as a moral duty and as means to alleviate the anxiety caused by not knowing one's fate in the afterlife. Those who took Calvin's advice and devoted themselves to their worldly tasks often achieved success in terms of material possessions. In time, this became seen as a sign that one was indeed saved, a sign all believers were anxious to acquire. The legacy of this thinking is incorporated in the modern-day conception of poverty as the result of individual failing, as something to be avoided, or escaped from, by one's own hand.

Ø A more recent religious conception sees poverty as a primarily secular evil, one perpetuated by human greed and thus to be actively opposed and eliminated.

Ø Liberation theologians in the 70s have argued that poverty is systemic, and that owing to the political domination of elites, the means for its escape are not readily available to the poor.

20. According to the Encyclopedia of Christianity [20], Poverty represents a global mass phenomenon. According to consistent estimates of the World Bank, UN authorities and NGO, nearly half of the world’s population live in poverty. In a world population of 6.1 billion people, 2.8 billion live either on the edge or beneath the minimum level of existence, and 1.2 billion that is one-fifth of all persons in the world – live in extreme poverty.

21. Poverty is generally understood as the social circumstances that structurally exclude certain people or groups from access to the resources needed to conduct one’s life ( eg tillable fields, clean water, education, income through work ) Solidarity is the social term that is antithetical to poverty. The ‘ poor ‘ are those who are unable to meet the basic human needs for existence. In biblical and theological understandings, the poor include widows, orphans and aliens who have slipped out of the solidarity provided by the family. The poor are commended to God ‘s protection because they still have a claim to justice ( -> Righteousness, Justice) . It is they to whom Christ and the church pay special attention.

22. The definition of poverty is disputed from the economic perspective or the socio-cultural perspective. Absolute and relative poverty can also be distinguished.

In the 19 century, poverty was often understood as being self-incurred or as willed by God rather than as caused by social factors. The emergence of a more powerful worker’s movement and intensified discussion of social questions in industrial nations, however, led to an understanding of poverty as a mass phenomenon caused by the economic processes best addressed by social policies implemented by the state. [21]

Measurement of Poverty

23. The World Bank published statistics reflecting global poverty measured against income. An income of up to US $1 ( acc to 1985 prices ) is understood as an expression of extreme poverty, whereas US $2 a day is designated as the upper poverty level generally applied in countries with middle-income levels. In these dollar terms, 2.8 billion people live on less than $2 per day, and 1.2 billion on less than $ 1. Between 1987 and 1998, the percentage of the Population in developed countries and countries in transformation that lives off less than $ 1 per day dropped from 28 to 24 percent. Though there was a significant drop of 4 % of people earning more than $ 1 per day, it did not imply that they were not living in poverty ! The purchasing power of $1 had significantly dropped within that 10 years !

Factors contributing to poverty

24. Poverty is particularly prevalent in developing countries. The primary reasons are economic and political, with factors involving climate, geography, religion, and culture playing a secondary role. Besides there are a number of unresolved distribution problems resulting in the poorest not getting any international assistance. [22] Most developing countries lack the necessary personnel, finances and technology to pursue sustainable economic and social development. Population increase then disrupt the delicate balance in the largely subsistence – level agrarian economy. The hungry rural population presses into the cities, which lack sufficient job opportunities. Zones of intense poverty characterize almost all larger cities in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.[23]

25. However, the problem is so complex because most of the time poverty is not an outcome of specific economic problems alone – such as lack of jobs, but an interplay of political, social, cultural, geographic or climatic one, caused, for example, by suppression within states, new forms of slavery or a lack of rights for certain minorities, social classes, groups or individuals, leading to increased inequalities and intensifications of poverty.

Poverty in war zones

26. On 21 Nov, 2009, I saw on the newspaper ( Annex A ) that UNICEF is urging the world to help the one billion children still deprived of food, shelter, clean water or health care – and the hundreds of millions more threatened by violence, two decades after UN adopted a treaty guaranteeing children’s rights.

27. UNICEF executive director called a sharp decline in child deaths a ‘ remarkable achievement ‘, and lauded the increasing number of children attending primary school. However at the same time, the director was awed by the fact that more than 24000 children under the age of five died every day from preventable causes like malaria, measles and malnutrition. It stated that nearly 200 million youngsters are chronically mal-nourished, more than 140 million are force to work, and millions of girls and boys of all ages are subjected to sexual violence. Children in Africa and Asia suffer the most. One of those victims, Grace Akallo, who was kidnapped by the notorious Uganda-led Lord’s Resistance Army in 1996 when she was 15 and became a child soldier and sex slave, urged greater global efforts to rescue children caught in wars. Families caught in war zones also suffer.

28. In the article Fighting Poverty to Build Peace which elaborated on Pope Benedict’s challenge to the world, Hubbard stated that the Pope warned that “immense military expenditures “ divert resources “ from development projects for peoples especially the poorest.”[24] I am of the opinion that not only does military spending divert resources from eradicating poverty, it actually exacerbate poverty.

Measures to alleviate poverty

29. Seeing this magnitude of poverty in Latin America, some theologians advocated an organizational alliance with the poor and oppressed to help them find active ways to oppose those structures that ensure their subjugation. The liberation theologians were active in the formation of social movements and agencies within the structure of the Catholic Church in countries such as Brazil, or the Philippines, designed to give voice to the aspirations of the common people and to organize the poor as a political force against the forces of economic and social oppression. [25]

Part III–

Biblical teaching on poverty and the Divine Mandate – Poverty Eradication

30. The bible has a great deal to say about the poor. [26]

Ø The OT indicates that God has a special concern for the poor, as in his deliverance of the Israelites from the bondage and poverty they experienced in Egypt. It is embodied in God’s warnings regarding mistreatment of the poor and oppressed. [27] In the OT there is a whole series of provisions made for the welfare of the poor. Every third year a tithe was to be given to the Levite, the sojourner, the fatherless and the widow. [28] A promise was attached to the faithful observance of this command. The Sabbatical year ( every seventh year ) was particularly significant : the landowners were not to sow in heir fields, and the poor were to be allowed to gather for themselves what simply grew of itself.[29] Hebrew slaves were to be turned free after six years of service [30] There was also a Sabbath of the Sabbaths, the year of the jubilee, the fiftieth year, when land reverted to the original owner. At all times part of the produce of the fields and vineyards was to be left for the poor to glean.[31] And a hungry person was allowed to eat fruit and ripe grain in a field, but not to carry any away [32] Those who had means were to lend to the poor, and no interest was to be charged. [33] No poor Hebrew who sold himself was to be made a slave; rather, he was to be considered a hired servant [34] and not to be treated harshly [35] No one was to take a mill or an upper millstone in pledge, since life virtually depended upon them.[36] Great care was to be taken that justice was done with respect to the poor.[37] Amos preached against those who disobeyed this command. [38] God is very concerned with the justice to the poor.

Ø In the NT, Jesus himself was one of the poor. [39] This is made clear in the account of his being brought as an infant to Jerusalem for the ritual of purification.[40] The law prescribed that a lamb and a turtledove or pigeon were to be sacrificed. However, according to the Law in Leviticus, after a son or daughter is born, the mother after the period of purification is over , will bring a year-old lamb for a burnt offering and a young pigeon or a dove for a sin offering so that the priest can make atonement for her and then she will be ceremonially clean. However she cannot afford a lamb, she is to bring two doves or two young pigeons, one for a burnt offering and the other for a sin offering. In this way the priest will make atonement for her, and she will be clean. Jesus’ family offered ‘ a pair of doves or two young pigeons’ ( Luke 2:24) rather than a lamb is an indication of their poverty. While Jesus in his ministry apparently did not suffer actual hardship and deprivation, he did not have abundance and evidently depended often upon the hospitality of others, such as Mary, Martha, and Lazarus. ( Matt 8:20 ) .

Liberation Theology and contribution from the South American Theologians

31. In liberation theology, Jesus Christ is the poor Christ who embodies the divine love and will for all humans to experience integral liberation. He is God become human, but more particularly, he is God become poor. The traditional understanding of kenosis , of God emptying God’s self for the sake of human beings, is interpreted in this two-fold light – God becoming human and God becoming a poor human. Christ surrenders equality with God to experience human inequalities from the bottom end of the society. [41]

A Divine Mandate

32. From the article Poverty Eradication : A Divine Mandate [42], it stated that

Poverty eradication, the antithesis of poverty, is a reversal of the fortune of individuals and communities from bad to good by divine intervention. Poverty eradication, is the empowering of the poor to participate actively in and contribute their quota to the society. It is making the poor have confidence in their own powers, to be productive. [43]

The Old Testament portrays YHWH as the greatest reverser of the misfortune of the poor, the initiator of poverty eradication (1 Sam 2:6-8). This shows that God does not stigmatize any group or class of people to be perpetually poor.

"Let there be no longer any poor among you" (Dt 15:4), is a commission to all human beings to participate fully in the divine scheme for the poor.

YHWH's absolute will to reverse people's poverty conditions, forms the basis for the wisdom teaching that the poor and the oppressed should turn to God in times of need (Ps 9:18; 40:17; 72:13) and invoke Him (Ps 82:4). The poor in the New Testament turn to Jesus for friendship (cf. Mk 2:15-17; Mt 9:10-11,13; Lk 5:18; 7:37; 15:lff).[44]

Different categories of poverty in the bible

33. From the biblical perspective as outlined in the Poverty Eradication : A Divine Mandate, poverty does not only relate to the economic poor, it refers mainly to "the inadequacy of life without honour, with consequent social and personal inability to participate in the activities of the community, the inability to maintain self-respect as defined by community social standards." In other words, the word poverty is a broad representation than economic poverty. Poverty includes sickness, ignorance, marginalization, discrimination, oppression, etc.

34. Traditional wisdom in OT times, insinuates that poverty arises from personal fault, that is, as an undesirable consequence of laziness or idleness (Pr l0:4; 14:4; 14:23; 19:15; 20:4,13; 21:17) and indocility (Pr 13:18). It also gives the impression in its teaching on earthly reward that wealth is a reward of virtue (Pr 15:6; Ps 1:3; 112:1-3) and poverty, a punishment (cf. Pr 10:15). However, Job and Qohelet see poverty as a result of political and economic exploitation (cf. Jb 20:19; 22:8; 24:4, 9; Eccl 5:8). Antithetical exploitation creates in a developing society, social classes and consequent tension between the rich and the poor.[45]

35. The first group is the poor in material things. They are vulnerable to oppression, discrimination and abuse and are in dire need of help. Another group of the poor is those who because of their feebleness and lowly state are oppressed by the rich and the powerful and as such bear the burden of the insensibility of their action. The New Testament identifies further a few other categories: The economically poor (cf. Lk 21:2), especially because of bodily ailment (cf. Acts 20:35) or physical and intellectual inability (Mt 26:41). There are also the poor as opposed to the rich, i.e. the poverty-stricken helpless persons who lack what is needed to exist (Acts 4:34).

Poverty alleviation as stated in the Bible

36. The Bible outlines what should be done to alleviate poverty. [46]

Ø In the OT, this is largely stated in the dos and don'ts of the Mosaic Law. The rich are mandated to be generous to the poor (Dt 15:7-11 cf. Est 9:22). Landowners must make adequate provisions for the survival of the poor when they harvest their fields. Hence the poor have the right to glean the fields (Lv 19:9,10; 23:22; Dt 24:19-21). The poor are given their share of the produce of the fields and vineyards in the sabbatical year (Ex 23:11 ; Lv 25:6) just as they recover their property in the jubilee year (Lv 25:25-30), while certain portions of the tithes are assigned specifically to the poor (Dt 14:28-29; 26:12-13). A worshipping community has an obligation during festivals to give portions to the poor (Dt 16:11,14; Neh 8:10). Outside acts of benevolence, the wages of the poor are to be paid promptly (Lv 19:13; Dt 24:14ff), their pledged garment returned before sunset (Ex 22:25-27; Dt 24:10-13) and their rights vigorously defended (Ex 23:3,6; cf. Pr31:9; contrast with Jr 5:28). The welfare of the poor is evident in those legislations which forbid that interest be exacted from the poor (Ex 22:25; Dt 24:10-13) and that the poor should not be plundered (Pr 22:22; cf. also v. 16; Am 8:6; Si 4:1).

Ø The New Testament presents to some extent similar injunctions. For instance, one is required to share what he/she has with the poor (Lk 3:11; contrast Acts 6:1). The rich have to provide for the poor as their primary Concern (Lk 14:13). Remembering the poor is a necessity (Gal 2:10), hence the rich have an obligation to supply the needs of the poor (Jm 2:15-16). An adverse consequence awaits the rich when this obligation is neglected (Lk 16:19-31). However, the New Testament goes beyond fundamental injunctions to make almost infeasible demands on the rich to sell what they have and give the proceeds to the poor (Mk 10:21; Mt 19:21; Lk 18:22; 19:8; Acts 2:45; 4:36ff). This radical demand of Jesus on the would-be disciples introduces a new biblical concept of poverty alleviation that goes beyond acts of benevolence.

The Church’s stance on poverty alleviation

37. The Church's attitude towards poverty alleviation is stated in the maxim of the Church Fathers: "Feed the man dying of hunger, because if you do not feed him you are killing him." St. Augustine believes that by giving what one has of superfluity to the poor, such a one has in a way wiped the feet of the Lord (Jn 12:1-8).[47] Similarly, the Fathers of Vatican II insist that mercy to the poor, the sick and charitable works of mutual aid aimed at the alleviation of all kinds of human needs, be held in special honour in the Church.

Part IV

The current Church’s response to poverty

38. Let’s turn our attention to an example in a developed world – the UK. There are around five million people living in 2,000 large housing estates where the average income is below the European poverty line. [48] Unemployment has risen largely in areas where council and housing association tenants live, leading to high levels of poverty and unemployment. Many residents in housing estates experience isolation, financial exclusion, vulnerability, and lack the opportunity to bring about effective change to their circumstances.

39. The Church Action on Poverty (CAP) , founded 17 years ago, provided a good example how church tackled the problem. This group realizes that in order to devise effective strategies for tackling poverty, it is necessary to listen to the voices and experiences of people who know most about it. This is a lesson that Naill Cooper believes many within the churches have still to come to terms with, stuck with our models of social welfare, Victorian philanthropy and the like. [49]

40. At first CAP sought to do this by organising 'Poverty Hearings' across the United Kingdom. Poverty Hearings are about turning the tables: those who normally talk about 'the poor' - bishops, politicians, business leaders, journalists are invited to attend the event as listeners. Those who are normally talked about have their chance to speak from firsthand experience of poverty to those in positions of power and authority in the Church and beyond.

41. The culmination of this process was a National Poverty Hearing in March 1996, attended by over 500 people: archbishops; bishops; Members of Parliament; leading trades unionists and business leaders. The Hearing was a profoundly moving experience both for speakers and listeners. In the words of one Bishop:

I was impressed with the capacity of people who have experienced deep poverty to articulate their concerns. It deepened my sense that communities of the poor have the resources but lack the opportunity to control their own lives.

42. CAP’s challenge is how to enable people in poverty not just to 'tell their story' but to contribute to the wider public debate about how we tackle poverty, to enable them to develop their own ideas about how we tackle poverty and to have their own visions for themselves and society taken seriously.[50] This involves putting resources and expertise in theology, biblical exegesis, social policy and connectedness at the disposal of vagabond communities, in accessible and appropriate ways - and then empowering people to draw their own conclusions.

43. CAP established a Welfare Reform Group comprised largely of people with a range of firsthand experiences of the benefits system in 1998. This group, with the assistance of CAP staff, has been responsible not only for preparing CAP's response to the Government's welfare reform proposals, but for developing its own proposals for welfare reform. Members of the group have now presented these proposals in face-to-face meetings with senior Treasury officials and key politicians from each of the three major political parties. The impact of such an initiative is impossible to gauge, but we believe it is symbolically important of that fact that people with direct experience of its consequences are in many senses 'the real experts in poverty'.

Examples of Holistic Ministry in Asia prior to 1990s ?

44. The book serving with the poor in Asia [51] documented 7 case studies on how veteran missionaries and scholars alleviate poverty in different settings before 1994. The title of these cases are :-

Ø United Mission to Nepal

Ø Doing gospel in Northeast Thailand

Ø Growing believers in Mindanao, Philippines

Ø A church emerging in rural Cambodia

Ø Enterprising Christians in Sulaweai, Indonesia

Ø Living a new reality in Kandy, Sri Lanka

Ø Love, medicine and prayer in NW India

45. The book was a product of a consultation held in Chiang Mai, Thailand, in 1994. Forty-nine practitioners, theorists and observers met to discuss cases of effective holistic ministry in Asia and lesson learnt. There appeared to be confusion about the concept ‘ holistic ministry ‘. What is holistic ministry ? Is it the same as Poverty Eradication ? There are any different explanations, such as - Ministry to the whole person ; Christian social transformation or Ministering to both physical and spiritual needs.

46. Among all the different interpretation, I agree with how Bryant Myers[52] defined a holistic ministry as ‘ one in which compassion, social transformation, and proclamation are inseparably related.’ He emphasizes the inseparable nature of evangelism and social action. Both ministry to the soul ( evangelism ) and ministry to the body ( social action ) are integral to the church’s work. But they are different tasks. Evangelism includes those efforts devoted to the proclamation of the Good News of God’s salvation in Jesus Christ. These activities bring men and women under the lordship of Christ and result in a vertical relationship with God. Social action includes those efforts devoted to the liberation of men and women from social, political and economic shackles. ‘A truly holistic ministry defines evangelism and social action as functionally separate, relationally inseparable and essential to the total ministry of the church; resulting in peace, order, harmony on the horizontal plane.’ While at the same time, there is a ‘thriving’ vertical relationship with God.

47. Yet, the result of these cases revealed that most development programs have not produced self-sustained development. David Korten [53] points out, ‘despite decades of development efforts, we live in a world of dehumanizing poverty, collapsing ecological systems, and deeply stressed social structures’ ( 1990 : 1 ) Some argue that this failure is due to the secular world view of many NGO. Each case study is obviously unique, and in some sense, different from the others. This reflects the particularity of history. Nevertheless, underlying many of them we see basic similarities that reflect the systematic nature of human societies, and our common humanity. [54]

48. One basic similarity that runs in all program and which undermine the results of these programs is the power of evil. The power that was mentioned in Part I- Where does evil come from ? and in Part II – the Theological reasons for Globalization.

49. Hiebert stated in his essay in the book serving with the poor in Asia that in the evils against which we fight are the consequences of sin which are manifested in injustice, poverty, broken relationships, damaged personalities, diseases, natural disasters, death and eternal lost and separation from God. In dealing with evil, we must deal with the root cause of evil. For instance, we can help people to cope with psychological problems, but until they are transformed as persons through the power of Christ, these solutions are only temporary. Similarly, we must empower the poor to improve their lives, and to transform the social systems that give rise to poverty. God transforms people and He transforms their societies and cultures. Until then, we will continue to have the poor with us, though Jesus said we will always have the poor with us.

How did Christian NGOs make use of globalization to better serve the poor ?

50. One Christian NGO whose head office is in London – The Evangelical Alliance Relief Fund ( TEARfund ) is a registered charity in the UK claimed that Church is the answer to global poverty but is it really ? The statement of faith of this NGO is at Annex B. ‘We are Christians passionate about the local church bringing justice and transforming lives - overcoming global poverty.’ [55] So their ten-year vision is to see 50 million people released from material and spiritual poverty through a worldwide network of 100,000 local churches. Here’s an example of their work.

51. Otirayi lost her husband and her home in quick succession. But then the local church stepped in. They built her a new home, and brought food, education and Jesus' saving love to her and her children. Otirayi's faith has blossomed as she sees first hand what the local church can do when it reaches out. Before, Otirayi's only certainty was poverty. Now she has the certainty of Christ's love in her life - a love shown through the safe home she lives in, the food for her children.

52. Tearfund is committed to enabling Christians worldwide to answer Jesus' call: a global network of churches is the answer to poverty. The NGO appeared to be achieving its targets yet their approach has yet to address the problem of decreasing number of committed Christians in the ‘sending churches’[56] The impact Tearfund made is miraculous: in Zambia the church provides nearly a third of the nation's healthcare. That's a big network plugging a big gap. And on their website or other publications, it said - you're an essential part of this.

Here’s the example of their work in Zambia

2005: The year of Make Poverty History

Debt relief money being put to good use

53. Zambia is proof that campaigning really does work. Saving made from debt cancellation means that this year Zambia will have 4500 new teachers, be able to build new schools and increase healthcare funding, especially for HIV/AIDS treatment. If you were wondering whether all your prayer and effort in support of Make Poverty History was worth it, this is just one reason why it was. Thank you.

Tearfund’s own evaluation on their campaign - Make Poverty History

54. The clicking of fingers was one of the most powerful sounds of 2005 – a stark reminder that one child dies every three seconds due to extreme poverty, perpetuated not by chance but by the policies of the powerful. The Make Poverty History campaign was launched in January 2005, to capitalize on the UK’s unique international role this year, as Chair of the G8 and President of the EU.  Its aim was to secure changes to key policies in 2005 and to create a step-change in the UK public’s awareness of poverty, to ensure continuing pressure for change beyond 2005. Tearfund was a founder member; more than 500 organizations subsequently joined. Instead of asking for charity, the campaign called for justice for the world’s poorest people. It challenged the UK Government to make changes to its own economic policies and to take a lead internationally - in the EU, at the G8, the UN World Summit, and the World Trade Organization. It focused on three critical and linked areas: injustice in global trade, the burden of not unjust debt and insufficient and ineffective aid.

55. There have been extraordinary moments. Twenty-five thousand people attended an all-night vigil in Westminster in April; nearly 250,000 came to march in Edinburgh ahead of the G8; and 97,000 Tearfund supporters sent a postcard to the Prime Minister to show that they were behind the campaign. The UK public was not alone but part of an astonishing global movement.  31 million people from 84 national coalitions around the world united in the Global Call to Action against Poverty.  But what was the impact? And what is still left to do?

56. Rich countries have promised to give more aid. Fifteen members of the EU have said that they will reach the UN target of spending 0.7% of their income on aid by 2015.  Other members of the G8 have also promised increases, which mean that by 2010 there will be US$48 billion more aid each year than there is now. However, this is still not enough money to even halve poverty and not many of the measures required to improve aid have been taken. The G8 agreed to cancel the debt owed by some poor countries to the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund and the African Development Bank. The 100 per cent cancellation agreement was an important principle – but the deal only includes some of the debts of some poor countries. It will release about $1 billion a year to combat poverty, compared to the minimum of $10 billion debt cancellation per year needed to help developing countries achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

57. The UK Government accepted that poor countries should not be forced to open up their markets and that agricultural subsidies in rich nations are very damaging. Yet little progress has been made on trade so far. At the meeting of the World Trade Organization in Hong Kong, developing countries gained little from the small concessions made by developed nations.  They have also accepted proposals that could seriously erode their right to protect their industries and basic services. But there are glimmers of hope. Developing countries representing four-fifths of the world came together at this meeting in a historic display of unity that could help them resist pressure in the future.

58. The G8's commitment to ensure HIV treatment was a clear success of the campaign. In a significant policy shift, the G8 committed to "as close as possible to universal access to treatment for all those who need it by 2010”. The target was endorsed at the UN World Summit and became an international commitment.  It now needs to be properly funded to ensure that it becomes a reality.

Role of the Holy Spirit

59. The above example of the work of Tearfund demonstrated how one NGO can influence world leaders - G8 to cancel the national debt. Behind their work, there is a global prayer network linking prayer-partners. I have been praying for their work since 1980 when they had not utilized the world-wide web to mobilize the global church to do mightier work such as the calling of the G8 World Leaders to cancel the developing nations’ national debt.

60. Attached at Annex C is some material I found on their praying corner on their webpage. This is just an illustration of how this organization has made use of the internet to deliver a variety of updated prayer request to the global community of supporters. On their webpage they provided many resources for different age groups to start to learn to care for the poor.

Part V

My own experience with a registered charitable society - the Friends of India [57] and the Great Commission [58]

61. Not all poor people benefit from the work done by the Christian NGOs or other agencies such as World Bank. There are many complicating reasons for this but one reason could be - the poor community is not accessible by these agencies. For instance, after the tsunami at the end of 2004 ( a brief description is at Annex D ), not all the affected victims received assistance. But why and how come ?

62. Thurpupalem, a remote village, on the SE coast of India could not get any immediate or long term support after the tsunami. This article is semi-protected.

The village is near to the Dayspring Children Home, a Christian Centre supported by sponsors from Hong Kong. One or two days after the tsunami, I received a phone call from the Indian co-worker, Pastor Adam, saying me that a nearby fishing village was affected by the tsunami and many houses collapsed, fishing boats were damaged and many adults had died. He sincerely requested Friends of India ( FOI ) which practiced what the bible said - ' look after orphans and widows in their distress.'  (James 1.27), to help the villagers as the local government could not help them. By God’s grace, FOI was able to raise about $10,000 from our own contacts in HK and from other parts of the world – UK, USA and Saudi Arabia, for this village. We sent the money to Pastor Adam so that he could buy some food and shelter for the survivors (victims). Together with the children living at Dayspring, Pastor Adam went to the village to distribute food, blankets and clothing to the victims. They also distributed bible tracts in local dialect ( Telegu ) to the victims and shared the love of Jesus Christ with them whom were Hindus. Pastor Adam also bought some construction material ie bricks, to help them to re-build their village. Quite a number of people in the village were killed in the tsunami, therefore Dayspring also admitted some 30 children. These children would have the opportunity to study at the Dayspring English Medium School, funded by FOI and to accept Jesus Christ as their personal saviour. In order to help the villagers to get back on their feet, Pastor Adam bought fishing nets for the villagers. Friends of India also raised some money so that Pastor Adam could buy one fishing boat for the village. Villagers would re-pay the cost of the fishing boat gradually. It was hoped that Pastor Adam could run a system to help the villagers to go fishing again. Unfortunately, the tsunami had disrupted the seabed and the fish or other sea animal had moved to other places. So the villagers could not catch any fish.

63. Hoping to provide a comprehensive relief package to these victims, I also wrote to several international relief agencies, [59] a few months after the tsunami, to ask if they could provide any long term assistance to this village. I was so disappointed that only one of them replied saying that they could not help because their local partners were not working anywhere near that village. So the village could not get any long term assistance to rebuild their village and their lives from the big NGOs. Neither could FOI provide any additional resources to the village because it is only a small society with a limited no. of volunteers and sponsors. Besides, our current legal constitution prevents the society from doing too much charity work in India.

64. I visited the village in April 2006 with a mission team. The village was situated next to the Pacific Ocean with strong waves. It was till in a shambles and the poor villagers could not get any help from their local government or any international relief agencies! However, they had the opportunity to know God immediately after the 2004 tsunami.

65. Through FOI’s work at Dayspring, I have been able to put the Great Commission ( Mat 28:18-20 ) into practice because, over the last decade, FOI has roughly helped hundreds of Indian children ( some of them were orphans ) and widows to get to know Christ. A few of them became evangelists in other parts of India. Nearly 50 brothers and sisters from Hong Kong, have gone on the mission trip to Dayspring with us. Many of them continued to witness for Christ in their local church and community.

Concluding thoughts

66. Globalization exacerbates World Poverty as seen by statistic ( para 26-8 – poverty in war zones) – the no. of malnutrition; by the article ( Annex E ) on Northern England battered by ‘ one-in-1,000-year ‘ floods showing that natural disasters frequently happened these days bringing poor people into disparity. Besides, the human condition at the end of the earth ( Mat 24 :3 -14 ) is full distress, hunger and violence.

67. Nevertheless, at the conclusion of this report, I am of the opinion that Christians have to continue to participate in projects aiming to alleviate the effect of poverty. It is because as Nwaoru stated that poverty eradication is a definitive response to the divine mandate as found in (Dt 15:4). Poverty eradication scheme should aim at empowering the poor to be self-reliant. [60] Besides, poverty alleviation project will help Christians to take the Good News to the ends of the earth, to put the Great Commission ( Mt 28:19-20 ) into practice.


Annex A Newspaper cutting from South China Morning Post dated 2009-11-21

Annex B Statement of faith from Tear Fund

Annex C Make Life flow through prayer, downloaded from the Tearfund website

assessed on 2009-11-25

Annex D A brief note on the 2004 tsunami

Annex E Northern England battered by ‘ one-in-1,000-year ‘ floods – newspaper

cutting from South China Morning Post dated 2009-11-21


Erickson, Millard. Christian Theology. Grand Rapids : Baker Books, 1998.

Hicks, Douglas. 2000. Inequality and Christian Ethics Cambridge University Press

God and Globalization vol 1 Religion and the Powers of the Common Life. Edited by Max L. Stackhouse with Peter J. Paris. Trinity Press International

God and Globalization vol 2 The Spirit and the Modern Authorities

Edited by Max L. Stackhouse with Don S. Browning. Trinity Press International

God and Globalization vol 3 Christ and the Dominions of Civilization

Edited by Max L. Stackhouse with Diane B. Obenchain. Trinity Press International

Globalizing Theology Belief and Practice in an Era of World Christianity. Edited by Craig Ott and Harold A. Netland .2006 Baker Academic, Grand Rapids Michigan

Serving with the Poor in Asia Edited by Tetsunao Yamamori et al . Published by MARC , USA

Articles from journals

Nwaoru, Emmanuel O.” Poverty eradication: a divine mandate,”AFER 46 no 3 S (2004):198-214.

McGrath , Alister R. “An Agenda For Theological Studies in the 21 st Century,” Jian Dao 12 (1999): 97-115

Cooper, Niall. “Tourist or vagabond?” Modern Believing 42 no 3 Jl (2001): 7-24.

Groody, Daniel G. “Globalizing solidarity: Christian anthropology and the challenge of human liberation.” Theological Studies 69 no 2 Je (2008): 250-268.

Absolute Poverty and Global Justice Empirical Data - Moral Theories - Initiatives Edited by Elke Mack, University of Erfurt, Germany, Michael Schramm, University of Hohenheim,Germany, Stephan Klasen University of Göttingen, Germany and Thomas Pogge, Yale University, USA

Commission for Justice, Peace and Creation under the direction of the central committee. Alternative Globalization Addressing People And Earth. Ecumenical Review; Jan/Apr2006, Vol. 58 Issue 1/2

Hubbard, Howard J. “Fighting Poverty to Build Peace.”America, Vol. 200 Issue 4 2/9/2009 : (10-14 )

Lausanne Occasional Papers No.20 An Evangelical Commitment to Simple Life-style Exposition and Commentary by Alan Nichols An introduction by John Stott and Ronald J. Sider

The Encyclopedia of Christianity

Grand Rapids, Mich. : Leiden : William B. Eerdmans ; Brill, 1999- 2005

[1] Groody, Daniel G. “Globalizing solidarity: Christian anthropology and the challenge of human liberation.” Theological Studies 69 (2008): 250-268.

[2] Craig Ott and Harold A. Netland eds., Globalizing Theology Belief and Practice in an Era of World Christianity ( Grand Rapids Baker Academic, 2006 ), 20

[3] Globalizing Theology Belief and Practice in an Era of World Christianity ed Craig Ott and Harold A. Netland .2006 (Baker Academic, Grand Rapids Michigan, ) 21

[4] Groody, Daniel G. “Globalizing solidarity: Christian anthropology and the challenge of human liberation.” Theological Studies 69 (2008): 254.

[5] NLT Study Bible p20

[6] Gen 1 : 31 31 God saw all that he had made, and it was very good. And there was evening, and there was morning—the sixth day. ( NIV)

[7] NIV Study Bible <> accessed on 2009-10-29

[8] Groody, Daniel G. “Globalizing solidarity: Christian anthropology and the challenge of human liberation.” Theological Studies 69 (2008)

[9] Niall Cooper , “Tourist or Vagabond .“ article from EBSCO downloaded in early 10/2009

[10] Gen 3 :7-19 7 Then the eyes of both of them were opened, and they realized they were naked; so they sewed fig leaves together and made coverings for themselves. 8 Then the man and his wife heard the sound of the LORD God as he was walking in the garden in the cool of the day, and they hid from the LORD God among the trees of the garden. 9 But the LORD God called to the man, "Where are you?" 10 He answered, "I heard you in the garden, and I was afraid because I was naked; so I hid." 11 And he said, "Who told you that you were naked? Have you eaten from the tree that I commanded you not to eat from?" 12 The man said, "The woman you put here with me—she gave me some fruit from the tree, and I ate it." 13 Then the LORD God said to the woman, "What is this you have done?"  The woman said, "The serpent deceived me, and I ate." 14 So the LORD God said to the serpent, "Because you have done this, "Cursed are you above all the livestock and all the wild animals! You will crawl on your belly and you will eat dust all the days of your life.15 And I will put enmity between you and the woman, and between your offspring [a] and hers; he will crush [b] your head, and you will strike his heel." 16 To the woman he said, "I will greatly increase your pains in childbearing; with pain you will give birth to children. Your desire will be for your husband, and he will rule over you." 17 To Adam he said, "Because you listened to your wife and ate from the tree about which I commanded you, 'You must not eat of it,' "Cursed is the ground because of you; through painful toil you will eat of it all the days of your life. 18 It will produce thorns and thistles for you, and you will eat the plants of the field. 19 By the sweat of your brow you will eat your food until you return to the ground, since from it you were taken; for dust you are and to dust you will return." (NIV)

[11] Gal 6 :15 15Neither circumcision nor un-circumcision means anything; what counts is a new creation. (NIV)

[12] Rev 21 : 1-2 1Then I saw a new heaven and a new earth, for the first heaven and the first earth had passed away, and there was no longer any sea. 2I saw the Holy City, the new Jerusalem, coming down out of heaven from God, prepared as a bride beautifully dressed for her husband. ( NIV)

[13] Jesus answered: "Watch out that no one deceives you. 5For many will come in my name, claiming, 'I am the Christ,[a]' and will deceive many. 6You will hear of wars and rumors of wars, but see to it that you are not alarmed. Such things must happen, but the end is still to come. 7Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. There will be famines and earthquakes in various places. 8All these are the beginning of birth pains. 9"Then you will be handed over to be persecuted and put to death, and you will be hated by all nations because of me. 10At that time many will turn away from the faith and will betray and hate each other, 11and many false prophets will appear and deceive many people. 12Because of the increase of wickedness, the love of most will grow cold, 13but he who stands firm to the end will be saved. 14And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached in the whole world as a testimony to all nations, and then the end will come ( NIV)

[14] Same as 2 p19

[15] God and Globalization vol 1 Religion and the Powers of the Common Life. Edited by Max L. Stackhouse with Peter J. Paris. Trinity Press International

[16] God and Globalization vol 1 Religion and the Powers of the Common Life. Edited by Max L. Stackhouse with Peter J. Paris. Trinity Press International ( p33 )

[17] Ephesians 6:12 For we are not fighting against flesh-and-blood enemies, but against evil rulers and authorities of the unseen world, against mighty powers in this dark world, and against evil spirits in the heavenly places.(NLT)

[18] Quoted from Globalizing Theology Belief and Practice in an Era of World Christianity Edited by Craig Ott and Harold A. Netland .2006 Baker Academic, Grand Rapids Michigan, p 23. But as Andrew Walls reminds us ( see chap. 3 in the book ) from the first centuries of the church on, Christian communities have flourished in portions of North Africa, the Middle East, central Asia, India, and China, and this Christian presence, while somewhat diminished over time, continued throughout the medieval and early modern periods.

[19] Definition of Poverty could be found on accessed on 2009-10-29

[20] The Encyclopedia of Christianity Eerdmans. Brill Vol 4 (p305 – 308 )

[21] The Encyclopedia of Christianity Eerdmans. Brill Vol 4 (p305 – 308 )

[22] as I highlighted in para 63 in Part V

[23] The Encyclopedia of Christianity Grand Rapids, Mich. : Leiden : William B. Eerdmans ; Brill, 1999- 2005 p305

[24] Howard JHubbard, “Fighting Poverty to Build Peace.”America, Vol. 200 Issue 4 2/9/2009 : (10-14 )

[25] Hicks, Douglas. 2000. Inequality and Christian Ethics Cambridge University Press

[26] Erickson, Millard Christian Theology. Grand Rapids : Baker Books, 1998. p566

[27] ( Duet 15 :9 ) 9 Be careful not to harbor this wicked thought: "The seventh year, the year for canceling debts, is near," so that you do not show ill will toward your needy brother and give him nothing. He may then appeal to the LORD against you, and you will be found guilty of sin. ( NIV)

[28] ( Duet 14:28-29 ) 28 At the end of every three years, bring all the tithes of that year's produce and store it in your towns, 29 so that the Levites (who have no allotment or inheritance of their own) and the aliens, the fatherless and the widows who live in your towns may come and eat and be satisfied, and so that the LORD your God may bless you in all the work of your hands.

[29] Exod 23 :10-11 10 "For six years you are to sow your fields and harvest the crops, 11 but during the seventh year let the land lie unplowed and unused. Then the poor among your people may get food from it, and the wild animals may eat what they leave. Do the same with your vineyard and your olive grove. (NIV)

[30] Exod 21:2 2 "If you buy a Hebrew servant, he is to serve you for six years. But in the seventh year, he shall go free, without paying anything.(NIV)

[31] Lev 19:9-10 9 " 'When you reap the harvest of your land, do not reap to the very edges of your field or gather the gleanings of your harvest. 10 Do not go over your vineyard a second time or pick up the grapes that have fallen. Leave them for the poor and the alien. I am the LORD your God.

[32] Deut 23:24-2524 If you enter your neighbor's vineyard, you may eat all the grapes you want, but do not put any in your basket. 25 If you enter your neighbor's grainfield, you may pick kernels with your hands, but you must not put a sickle to his standing grain.

22 Exod 22:25 25 "If you lend money to one of my people among you who is needy, do not be like a moneylender; charge him no interest or excessive rate.

[34] Lev 25 :39-40 39 " 'If one of your countrymen becomes poor among you and sells himself to you, do not make him work as a slave. 40 He is to be treated as a hired worker or a temporary resident among you; he is to work for you until the Year of Jubilee.

24 Lev 25:43 43 Do not rule over them ruthlessly, but fear your God.

[36] Duet 24 :6 6 Do not take a pair of millstones—not even the upper one—as security for a debt, because that would be taking a man's livelihood as security.

[37] Exo 23 :6 6 "Do not deny justice to your poor people in their lawsuits

[38] Amos 5 :12 12 For I know how many are your offenses and how great your sins. You oppress the righteous and take bribes and you deprive the poor of justice in the courts.

[39] Millard Erickson, Christian Theology. (Grand Rapids : Baker Books, 1998.)567

[40] Luke 2 :24 24and to offer a sacrifice in keeping with what is said in the Law of the Lord: "a pair of doves or two young pigeons

[41] Hicks p151-152

[42] Poverty Eradication : A Divine Mandate Emmanuel O. Nwaoru

[43] Emmanuel O Nwaoru, ” Poverty eradication: a divine mandate,”AFER 46 no 3 S (2004):199.

[44] Emmanuel O Nwaoru, ” Poverty eradication: a divine mandate,”AFER 46 no 3 S (2004): 209

[45] Emmanuel O Nwaoru, ” Poverty eradication: a divine mandate,”AFER 46 no 3 S (2004):199.

[46] Emmanuel O Nwaoru, ” Poverty eradication: a divine mandate,”AFER 46 no 3 S (2004): 202

[47] Emmanuel O Nwaoru, ” Poverty eradication: a divine mandate,”AFER 46 no 3 S (2004): 206

[48] Niall Cooper, “Tourist or vagabond?” Modern Believing 42 no 3 Jl (2001): 9.

[49] Niall Cooper, “Tourist or vagabond?” Modern Believing 42 no 3 Jl (2001): 11

[50] Niall Cooper, “Tourist or vagabond?” Modern Believing 42 no 3 Jl (2001): 21-22

[51] Serving with the Poor in Asia Edited by Tetsunao Yamamori et al . (Published by MARC, USA)

[52] Bryant Myers defined holistic ministry in an article in World Visin in 1988.

[53] Korten, David C. 1990. Getting to the 21 st Century. West Hartford, CN: Kumarian Press, Inc.

[54] Quoted from Ch. 8 Anthropological and missiological reflections by Paul Hiebert in Serving with the Poor in Asia Edited by Tetsunao Yamamori et al . (Published by MARC, USA)

[55] Work of TEARFUND Extract from website : www.tearfund.orgDownloaded on 2009-10-22

[56] The term sending churches simply implies the churches in the West which used to send out a lot of missionaries to the Far East.

[57] In the last decade, I have been actively involved with the work in a registered charity – Friends of India < > I co-founded the society with the missionary, Rev. Scott Smith and 2 other Christian sisters in 1997. The society acts as a bridge to transfer the monetary support from the developed world to the Dayspring Children’s Home, in a remote village, near Andra Pradesh in India.

[58] Mat 28 :19-20 19Therefore go and make disciples of all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit, 20and teaching them to obey everything I have commanded you. And surely I am with you always, to the very end of the age."

[59] Red Cross, Oxfam and World Vision

[60] Emmanuel O Nwaoru, ” Poverty eradication: a divine mandate,”AFER 46 no 3 S (2004):213