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The Purpose of Founding a Website of "Global and Contextual Theological Reflection" PDF Print E-mail
Written by Administrator   
Wednesday, 28 April 2010 23:16

The Purpose of Founding a Website of

"Global and Contextual Theological Reflection"

 

As a Chinese Christian theologian living in the age of globalized and standing up of China, needs to open ourselves to learn the advantage of the western culture, appreciates the depth of  thinking and research method of western theology on the one hand,   and critically analyzes Chinese situation, towards the cross-cultural, interdisciplinary and inter-religious dialogues.  As the author has studied in Germany, it is natural to encourage the research in German theological  thinking.  The area of author's  doctoral dissertation is Systematic Theology, therefore there are lot of articles in Systematic Theology.  Moreover, the area of  author's Habilitationsschrift is Christian Ethics, therefore, there are lot of articles in Christian Ethics.   The website of "Global and Contextual Theological Reflection" collects good articles written by the student's of the author, with their consensus uploading to this website, with the intention that readers having interest in Theology could get stimulation.

Last Updated on Monday, 13 December 2010 14:18
 
陳翠珊:從三位一體論聖靈 PDF Print E-mail
Written by Publisher   
Wednesday, 11 January 2012 20:38

從三位一體論聖靈

 

推介人:郭鴻標博士

作者:陳翠珊

 

 

由尼西亞大會至宗教改革時期,教會有關正確而正統的教義包括:(一)尼西亞大公會議確定了聖子的神性。(二)康士坦丁堡大會確定了聖靈的神性。(三)托雷都會議則確定了「聖靈是由聖父和聖子而出」的教義。[1] 不過要等到宗教改革時代,才發展出一套有系統的聖靈論的正統教義。[2] 這個時期的代表人物是路德和加爾文。路德承接奧古斯丁的思想,視聖靈為信徒心中「愛的注入」,讓信徒經歷上帝的同在,也使人的意志與上帝的美意配合。加爾文則認為聖靈光照人的內心,使人相信聖經是上帝的話。此外,他相信聖靈幫助信徒藉著信心,與基督聯合和契通。[3] 十七、十八世紀承接宗教改革所強調的因信稱義及靠恩得救,並更多探討聖靈在救恩工作的角色。十八世紀在美國的大覺醒運動,引起教會與信徒對聖靈工作的興趣,和對屬靈經驗的渴求。而十九世紀的自由主義神學,和二十世紀初的社會福音,加上兩次世界大戰帶給人類的創傷和失落,許多人的心靈枯乾,渴望重拾人生的真愛、盼望、能力;這一切都間接促使二十世紀教會對聖靈工作重新的重視。[4]

基於對聖靈工作的重視而興起的運動,包括古典的五旬節運動(1901~1950)、靈恩運動(1950~1980)及第三波(1980至今)。一九零一年一月一日,一位聖經學校的負責人,名叫巴翰,為校內一名女學生按手祈禱後,她說起自己不明白的方言來。歷史學家認為這就是五旬節運動的開始。[5] 該運動的主要教義,乃強調「聖靈恩賜」及「聖靈的洗」(藉方言證實人經歷了第二次的祝福)。靈洗的目的是為了使信徒有特殊的能力。該運動也強調信徒當返回新約時代,來經驗所有在該時代所賜下的聖靈恩賜。[6]

 

靈恩運動則由五旬節運動衍生出來,後者稱為舊五旬節宗,前者則被稱為新五旬節宗。[7] 靈恩運動同樣強調特殊的聖靈工作之彰顯,其與五旬節運動的不同,在於他們操練聖靈恩賜的不同。靈恩派相信並期望,恩賜的經歷將引導恩賜的運用;領受超自然的權能可以釋放超自然的能力。[8]

 

第三波始於美國加州,在當地推行權能佈道、醫治、趕鬼及作先知預言,並在各地建立了「葡萄園教會」。第三波低調處理方言恩賜,以「靈洗」為信徒歸主經歷之一部分,多次強調聖靈充滿。[9]

 

至於福音派對聖靈工作的描述,其實也有回應。福音主義刻意地把自己與基要主義區別出來,持守基督教傳統的古典教義,但同時又公開面對後啟蒙運動,和後現代世界的挑戰。[10] 在過去十年,福音派運動其中一位主要的神學家:潘嘉樂,對一般的聖靈論和靈恩問題有重大的貢獻。五旬宗神學家Terry L. Cross認為,有關神學的方法論,福音派的系統神學顯然缺乏完整的反思。不過,他認為潘嘉樂的著作,卻是例外。[11] 潘氏主要的聖靈論著作靈風愛火──再思聖靈論是一本系統神學的書,他從聖靈論視角有系統地討論主題如三一、創造、啟示、基督論和教會等。[12] 他在序言中表示,「福音派神學家往往害怕聖靈和其他課題的一些新觀念,因而把自己局限在一些前人走過的路上。故此,他撰寫《靈》,盼望讓聖靈重登應有,但過去一直被否定的崇高地位。由於從三一論看聖靈,能使我們免於忽略基督,或過分高舉聖靈的角色[13],所以本文將探討潘氏如何透過上帝三位一體的建構來認識聖靈,並嘗試淺談五旬宗/靈恩派的上帝觀。

 

潘氏認為一體是一個不簡單的概念,例如「單一」的有機體、一件藝術品等,內中是極其錯綜複雜的。同樣,神聖的一體性是複雜的,但不是非理性的。它只是「集中體現一體當中的複雜性,這複雜性是我們到處可經驗到的。」[14] 而且,三位一體的教義讓我們知道,創造主不是靜止呆濟或袖手旁觀的,乃一慈愛的關係和全然活潑的生命。它告訴我們創造是基於上帝的愛,生命的賜予全出於恩典。故此,認識聖靈在三位一體中與聖父、聖子的關係,是相當重要的。

 

1. 靈與位格的定義

在聖經裡,「靈」一字曾單獨出現,例如耶穌說:「上帝是靈」(約四24)潘氏認為耶穌這樣描述上帝,是想表達上帝是滿有能力的強風、創造者和無窮盡的生命泉源。無疑,「在聖經中並非非物質的,乃是那超越的創造能力。「」也可以概括地指上帝的臨在,祂的彰顯可見於創造和更新世界的能力。這是許多經文,特別是舊約,所指的意思。[15]是所有位格的共同本質,但同時又是與聖父和聖子有別的位格。[16]

潘氏指出「位格」通常指自主、獨立的自我。不過,他認為如果採用這定義,上帝裡面有三個位格的說法便無法成立。因此,他認為「位格」應該被定義為在關係之中,在關係之外便不存在。這表明了每一個位格的主體性、相互性和互惠性。意思就是「三位一體中每一個位格在彼此連繫和分享神聖意識的同時,還自覺個別的身分。每個位格都意識自己是神聖的,並在一個互惠關係中有別於其他位格。」[17]

3. 經世三一中的聖靈

在福音書中,耶穌基督的事跡展示了上帝三位一體的概念,這稱為經世的三位一體。而在上帝自己內在的生命,稱為內契的三位一體。雖然上帝的奧秘超越定義,其揭示也有限度;「經世的三位一體」又未能完全解釋內契的三位一體,因為神聖奧秘淹沒了啟示,被造之物便無法洞識。頁32。然而,「內契的三位一體經世的三位一體顯明,至少我們可以知道上帝是聖父、聖子和聖靈,也讓我們有空間思考祂們的關係和分別。[18]

3.1. 耶穌是神聖的位格

聖經記載,當耶穌在約旦河受洗時,祂清楚知道自己是聖父的愛子(可一11)。並且祂經歷了聖靈的充滿,為要完成父所交托的使命。(可一10)往後在耶穌禱告(可十四36;太十一27)、治病和趕鬼(太十二28)的生活裡,都能體現祂是上帝兒子的獨特意義,和祂是聖靈獨特的承載者。[19] 新約的作者也承認耶穌是神聖的位格,例如他們稱耶穌為主,甚至是上帝;一些本來指向上帝的舊約經文,例如創造和審判,在新約則用於耶穌身上,及祂所施行的神聖職事上。他們直接而清晰地指出耶穌是先存的,且是配受敬拜的那一位(腓二6;西一19,二9;來一3)。

三位一體的概念不單彰顯於耶穌的受洗與傳道生活,也活現在祂的死亡與復活中。當耶穌基督被釘在十字架上時,聖父與祂一同受苦;而聖靈,則一方面在聖子自我犧牲時給祂力量,另一方面又叫祂從死裡復活,稱祂為義。[20]

3.2. 聖靈是神聖的位格

新約指出聖靈會發言、代求、教導和擔憂等,顯出聖靈是個位格,會主動作事。我們又可以從約翰福音清楚看見,上帝神聖位格之間的關係和合一中的分別。上帝的三個位格是彼此內住而產生互動的,但祂們合一之中又有區別。例如約十四26指出聖父奉聖子的名差遣聖靈來教導我們;十五26指出聖子從父那裡差遣聖靈來,使聖靈為祂作見證;約十七21指出聖父住在聖子裡面,聖子住在聖父裡面。[21]

 

4. 內契三一中的聖靈

藉着上帝道成肉身拯救人類,我們除了可以大概理解祂裡面的特性,還稍稍窺見三個位格相互交流的愛的團契。這三個位格縱然各不一樣,但在共融、互相依存的關係中,祂們成其所是。[22]「就與聖子的關係而言,上帝是聖父,就與聖父的關係而言,上帝是聖子。」「聖父在生出和差遣聖子的時候是父親。聖子在順服聖父的時候是兒子。聖靈在聖子裡榮耀聖父、在聖父裡榮耀聖子的時候是靈。」[23] 三位一體顯示上帝的本質是愛,喜歡分享生命,是完全的社群性、相互性、互惠性和平安。潘氏認為若抽離三位一體來思考上帝,便會忽略關係性和這關係性對上帝身分的重要性,甚至可能引起謬誤。因為這樣會使我們以為可以不用啟示,只靠個人臆測,也可十分了解神聖的本質。[24]

福音書和書信中又說聖靈是愛,祂的工作與喜樂有關。聖靈連合聖父和聖子,促進關係,激發忘我的喜樂。例如路十21說耶穌被聖靈感動而歡樂;林後十三13指出聖靈的團契把人招聚一起;保羅在加五22及西三14把聖靈起初的果子稱為愛,這愛把一切和諧地聯絡起來。[25] 潘氏認為聖靈是聖父和聖子在愛中生出來的嬰孩,把只限於二人關係的欲愛(eros)變為三位的神聖的愛(āgape[26]

潘氏又論到聖靈與盼望的關係。藉著創造和新創造,聖靈在創世時為空虛混沌帶來生命和秩序;在歷史中叫死人,包括耶穌基督,從死裡復活;在現今幫助世界轉化成上帝的國度。不過,潘氏認為聖靈是謙卑的,祂甘願隱藏自己在靈裡貧窮的人心中。[27] 這或許是我們容易忽略聖靈的原因之一。

5. 人類社群中的聖靈

上帝內諸位格的彼此相愛、享受和共融,成了我們所嚮往那共享生命的完美模範。由此,我們明白人與人之間的生命互動,所形成的團結實體,遠較個體為大。人類群體的被造,就是要反映上帝的完全;人一生的旅程就是要參與上帝完全的生命。[28] 潘氏喜歡以「出神」(ecstasy)一詞來形容聖靈。它的意思是「『在自己以外站著』,表示聖靈是那位離開自己的,好打開三位一體的生命圈子,又作為全然豐盛的源頭。」換言之,聖靈既完成三位一體的圈子,也向上帝以外的世界開放。[29]

 

奧古斯丁抱持同樣的看法,認為聖靈不僅是愛的恩賜,聖靈本身就是神聖的愛,使上帝可以和被造物相交。[30] 故此,聖靈確認了耶穌作為聖父兒子的身分,使祂可以藉聖靈進到聖父那裡,聖子和聖父之間的關係就是這樣被豐富了。同樣,藉著恩典,聖靈見證我們為上帝的兒女(羅八16;加四67);祂吸引我們與聖子和聖父相交,也與其他基督徒聯合,建立愛和團契、合一與和平的關係(約壹一34)。[31] 潘氏指出,雖然世上沒有一個類比可以完全地描繪三位一體,但在某程度上我們可以從人類群體的面貌來了解聖靈的面貌,因為那是上帝的住處,並愛得到完全的地方(約壹四12)。由於聖靈居住在聖徒裡頭,當聖徒在恩典和聖潔中成長時,便能越發反映聖靈的面孔,教會更會散發聖靈的光茫。[32]

 

6. 對其他神學家的評價

潘氏批評奧古斯丁視上帝為單一意志,不同的位格是這意志的不同面貌這個看法,有點傾向了神體一位論(unitarian)。他認為奧氏的問題在於他從哲學的資源來推論上帝的簡約性。[33] 對於巴特堅稱在上帝裡面是三個形相(modes,而非三個位格,潘氏認為他的理念是上帝為單一位格,卻以三個身分不明的形相存在,所高舉的仍是合一多於分殊。[34] 潘氏這種批評,有點像主後215年撒伯流主義的神格唯一論(Modal Monarchianism[35] 至於龔漢思(Hans Küng),他視聖父為在我們之上的上帝,聖子是上帝藉以顯現的人類代表,聖靈則是在我們裡面的上帝的能力。潘氏認為這樣的表達好像在說聖父是上帝,聖子和聖靈不過是上帝在歷史中的作為。換句話說,聖子和聖靈屬於同一個神聖位格,在啟示和拯救事件中有不同的角色。[36] 潘氏認為自由主義神學也主張神體一位論,把靈視為上帝的臨在,而不是第三個位格。

7. 對潘氏的評價

Cross認為潘氏用「位格」一詞來形容三位一體裡面的成員,並不合適。因為一方面「位格」在早期教會乃用作表達三位一體中各成員的面貌,而非三個獨立的個體;另一方面潘氏也知道「位格」的現代意思為自主、獨立的。而且,Cross覺得潘氏試圖以哲學抓住聖經中的神秘,可是這詞並不是聖經用語。[37]

 

Cross又認為潘氏批評巴特堅稱在上帝裡面是三個形相,而非三個位格,就表示他高舉合一多於分殊的說法,誤解了巴特的意思。對於使用「位格」一詞,其實巴特覺得好掙扎,於是他創造了「Seinsweise」或「ways of being」詞彙。Cross認為雖然巴特這個自創的詞彙仍有限制,但比較「位格」,它已經豐富了真理的啟示的意思。[38]

 

Cross指出潘氏描述聖靈為愛的聯絡時,仿佛就是說聖靈除此以外,別無其他。Cross明白到潘氏或許是想突出聖靈是自主的,和沉默者。然而,這樣始終無法把聖靈的面貌具體地描繪出來。筆者認為能夠成為聖父與聖子愛的聯絡,已讓我想像到聖靈是多麼有能力和有自主權的一位。因為愛是可以創造、更新和改變人、事、物,且愛是一種選擇,耶穌基督的拯救便是最佳例子。此外,潘氏提到聖靈的面貌,在某程度上可以從信徒群體中窺見。我想,就好像耶穌說:「你們若有彼此相愛的心,眾人因此就認出你們是我的門徒了。」(約十三35)這也是另一個讓人認識聖靈面貌的途徑。

 

8. 五旬宗/靈恩派的上帝觀

根據Veli-Matti Kärkäinnen的看法,直至最近,五旬宗也從沒有憂心過要清楚界定三位一體的教義。[39] 因為五旬宗一向代表草根階層的靈恩運動、靈恩狂熱,而非推論性質的神學。D. Lyle Dabney也認為在過去一段頗長的日子裡,五旬宗只有外借別人的神學,而沒有建構出自己實在的教義方向;他們的神學身分也是很模糊,對整個運動沒有適切的定義。[40] 就神學身分而言,Kärkkäinen 指出聖靈論或許不是五旬宗最關注的靈性議題,因為越來越多學者認為「完備福音」才是他們的信仰焦點。「完備福音」是指耶穌的五個職事:救贖主、聖者、聖靈的施浸者、醫治者和再來的君王[41] 不過,Wolfgang Vondey認為,早期的五旬宗信徒並沒有拒絕大公教會制定的信經內容或用字,也沒有拒絕學術的和有系統的神學。他們只是不能接受以人手訂定的信條,來取代上帝有關合一的律法。他們認為那些信條所製造出來的「主義」,不僅不能帶來靈裡的合一,更是實際上破壞了信徒之間的團契。[42]

從五旬宗與羅馬天主教始於1972年的對話,我們可以大概了解五旬宗有關三一神之中的「團契」,以及從「團契」的角度看「和子論」的神學理念。根據Final Report (1985-1989)標題:The Holy Spirit and the New Testament Vision of Koinonia,副題:Koinonia with the Triune God,五旬宗與羅馬天主教均相信信徒的團契植根於聖父、聖子和聖靈的生命,而聖靈就是「團契」或聯合的來源;並且三位一體的生命是信徒合一的最高表達。[43] 雙方不同之處,乃在於這種合一的表達方式。

 

天主教神學家Herve Legrand, OP認為,根據林前十16、一9及約六56,信徒與聖子的聯合彰顯於聖餐。至於洗禮,更能反映信徒與上帝的聯合,因為這是奉耶穌的名,透過聖靈而成就的(使二38、八16、十48、十九5;林前六11)。那受洗的人,便成為聖靈內住的殿(林前八19)。如此,每一位受洗的信徒,以致整個教會都被聖靈更新。Legrand強調聖靈的恩賜,並不僅僅為了信徒與上帝之間進深的聯合(林後十三14;腓二1),而同時為了共同建立上帝的教會(林前十二7、十四4)或稱為神的殿(林前三16;弗二22 )。[44] 另一位天主教徒Heribert Mühlen[45] 也認為教會是聖靈可見及可認知的形體。[46]

 

五旬宗一位代表人物Cecil M. Rocker, Jr.以林後十三13及林前一9、腓二1等,來解釋他對三位一體的看法。他認為「團契」是用以形容一種與上帝特別的關係,這關係是透過聖子,藉著聖靈得以成就的關係。[47] Howard Ervin也稱:「五旬宗堅持在聖靈裡的重生與涭洗,會帶來個人與聖子及聖靈的團契。」他認為二十一世紀的五旬宗重新強調,他們不單在純理性的層面討論三位一體的教義,乃要實在而直接地經驗與上帝和與其他信徒的團契;而且這種經驗應該為每一個神子民普遍的經驗。[48]

 

總括而言,羅馬天主教視靈裡的團契為必須透過教會而產生的,而五旬宗則重視每一位信徒個體在靈裡面的經歷。[49]

 

從五旬宗的角度,看關於三位一體教義的文獻,是被增添在條文二的Assemblies of God “Statement of Fundamental Truths”。題目為The Adorable Godhead,相關的部分是(d”Identity and Co-Operation in the Godhead”。除了定義三位一體外,這段文字還有「和子論」的表達:

 

The Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost are never identical as to Person; nor confused as to relation; nor divided in respect to the Godhead; nor opposed as to cooperation. The Son is in the Father and the Father is in the Son as to relationship. The Son is with the Father and the Father is with the Son, as to fellowship. The Father is not from the Son, but the Son is from the Father, as to authority. The Holy Ghost is from the Father and the Son proceeding, as to nature, relationship, cooperation and authority. Hence neither Person in the Godhead either exists or works separately or independently of the others. John 5:17-30, 32, 37; John 8:17, 18.[50]

 

雖然在五旬宗與羅馬天主教的對話中,並沒有提及「和子」的問題,但五旬宗學者Howard M. Ervin則對此有詳細的討論。他認為大部分五旬宗信徒對於「和子」的問題,都抱持不一致的意見。大部分五旬宗的小冊子會加入西方教會的說法:「聖靈由聖父和聖子而出」。可是,一些五旬宗的書籍對於聖靈由聖父和聖子而出的關係是屬永恆的,或只是在五旬節降臨於教會中,感到尷尬。其他五旬宗信徒則同意聖靈是永恆地由聖父和聖子而出。Ervin認為根據約十五26,聖靈只是由聖父而出。因此,他認為五旬宗的神學也是如此立場的。[51] 另一位五旬宗的學者Raymond M. Pruitt則為了避免引起爭議,他表示「發出」一詞只是就活動上的功能而言,而非本質上的等級之別。[52] Kärkkäinen指出,由此可見五旬宗的神學流於缺乏分析的層面。[53]

9. 總結

二十世紀的靈恩運動,的確為傳統基督教會的信仰和生命帶來極大的挑戰和衝擊。他們聲稱信仰不是單純理性的教義,而是更需要活潑而真實地經驗上帝的能力。因此,他們極度重視被聖靈充滿的外顯表現。這些表現又真的吸引了不少原為福音主義的信徒加入,竭力追求一些屬靈經驗。然而,個人的屬靈經驗始終不能取代聖經的教導。若然缺乏聖經真理的基礎,我們便無法辨識層出不窮的屬靈經驗。不論是潘嘉樂的三一論,或是五旬宗所言的靈裡團契,兩者皆提到它們與信徒群體的關係。不過,前者更有系統地把這個關係描繪出來,讓我們能夠明白認識三一論對屬靈群體的重要性。而且,潘氏在理論當中,還加入個人的屬靈經驗作為見證分享。可見福音派的聖靈論,並非如五旬宗的指控,只有頭腦的知識;在教義實踐上,我們也經歷生命的更新。


中文參考書目

大衛寶信。《第四波:靈恩派和福音派:我們準備好合一嗎?》。香港:亞洲歸主協會,1998

陳若愚。《基督、聖靈與救贖:基督教要義導覽》。香港:基道,2010

潘嘉樂。《靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》。香港:基道,2002

斯托得著。白陳毓華譯。《認識福音派信仰》。台北:校園書房,2001

魏學綱。《聖靈論》。香港:種籽出版社,2001

Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen。《聖靈論:全球導覽》。香港:基道出版社,2009

 

英文參考書目

Burgess, Stanley M. Dictionary of Pentecostal and charismatic movements. Edited by Gary B. McGee. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House, 1988.

Cross, Terry L. “’A Critical Review Of Clark Pinnock’s Flame Of Love’: A Theology Of The Holy Spirit” Journal of Pentecostal Theology 13 (1998): 10~11.

Cross, Terry L. “A Proposal To Break The Ice: What Can Pentecostal Theology Offer Evangelical Theology?,” Journal of Pentecostal Theology 10.2 (2002): 49~71.

Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen. “Pneumatologies in Systematic Theology” in Studying Global Pentecostalism : Theories and Methods. University of California Press, 2010.

Veli-Matti Kärkkäinen. Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission. Edited by Amos Yong. Lanham, MD : University Press of America, c2002.

Veli-Matti Kärkäinnen. “Trinity as Communion in the Spirit: Koinonia, Trinity, and Filioque in the Roman Catholic-Pentecostal Dialogue,” PNEUMA The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies Vol. 22, No. 2 (Fall 2000): 220~221.

Wolfgang Vondey. Beyond Pentecostalism: the crisis of global Christianity and the renewal of the theological agenda. Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Pub., 2010.



[1] 魏學綱:《聖靈論》(香港:種籽出版社,2001),頁199

[2] 魏學綱:《聖靈論》,頁205c.f. Charles Ryrie, Basic Theology (Illinois: Victor Books, 1986), 387~388.

[3] 陳若愚:《基督、聖靈與救贖:基督教要義導覽》(香港:基道,2010),頁307

[4] 陳若愚:《基督、聖靈與救贖:基督教要義導覽》,頁308~309

[5] 魏學綱:《聖靈論》,頁216

[6] 魏學綱:《聖靈論》,頁217

陳若愚:《基督、聖靈與救贖:基督教要義導覽》,頁311

[7] 魏學綱:《聖靈論》,頁217

[8] 大衛寶信:第四波:靈恩派和福音派:我們準備好合一嗎?》(香港:亞洲歸主協會,1998),頁5

[9] Stanley M. Burgess, Dictionary of Pentecostal and charismatic movements, ed. Gary B. McGee (Grand Rapids, Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House, 1988), 843~844.

[10] 斯托得著,白陳毓華譯:《認識福音派信仰》(台北:校園書房,2001),頁17

Kärkkäinen, Veli-Matti《聖靈論:全球導覽》(香港:基道出版社,2009),頁170~171

[11] Terry L. Cross, “A Proposal To Break The Ice: What Can Pentecostal Theology Offer Evangelical Theology?,” Journal of Pentecostal Theology 10.2 (2002): 49.

[12] Veli-Matti《聖靈論:全球導覽》,頁171

[13] Kärkkäinen, Veli-Matti, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, ed. Yong, Amos (Lanham, MD : University Press of America, c2002), 103~104.

[14] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論(香港 : 基道,2002),頁28-9

[15] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁23

[16] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁3236

[17] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁37

[18] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁3238

[19] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁25~26

[20] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁26

[21] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁27

[22] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁29

[23] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁30

[24] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁31

[25] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁38

[26] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁40

[27] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁41

[28] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁43

[29] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁39

[30] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁40

[31] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁3840

[32] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁43~44

[33] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁34

[34] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁34

[35] 魏學綱:《聖靈論》(香港:種籽出版社,2001),頁191

[36] 潘嘉樂:靈風愛火:再思聖靈論》,頁34~35

[37] Terry L. Cross, “’A Critical Review Of Clark Pinnock’s Flame Of Love’: A Theology Of The Holy Spirit” Journal of Pentecostal Theology 13 (1998): 10.

[38] Cross, “’A Critical Review Of Clark Pinnock’s Flame Of Love,’” 11.

[39] Veli-Matti, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, 97.

[40] Terry L. Cross, “A Proposal To Break The Ice: What Can Pentecostal Theology Offer Evangelical Theology?,” Journal of Pentecostal Theology 10.2 (2002): 71.

[41] Kärkkäinen Veli-Matti, “Pneumatologies in Systematic Theology” in Studying Global Pentecostalism : Theories and Methods (University of California Press, 2010), 224.

[42] Vondey, Wolfgang, Beyond Pentecostalism: the crisis of global Christianity and the renewal of the theological agenda (Grand Rapids, Mich.: William B. Eerdmans Pub., 2010), 89.

[43] Veli-Matti, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, 99.

[44] Veli-Matti, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, 100~101.

[45] Heribert Mühlen, Una Mystica Persona. Die Kirche als das Mysterium der Identität des Heiligen Geistes in Christus und den Christen: eine Person in vielen Personen (Paderborn, Germany: Ferdinand Schöning, 1967). See also H. Mühlen, “Charismatic and Sacramental Understanding of the Church: Dogmatic Aspects on Charismatic Renewal, “ One in Christ 12 (1976), 334 (the published version of his position paper read at the first quinquennium meeting in 1974).

[46] Veli-Matti, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, 102.

[47] Veli-Matti, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, 102.

[48] Veli-Matti, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, 103.

[49] Kärkäinnen, Veli-Matti, “Trinity as Communion in the Spirit: Koinonia, Trinity, and Filioque in the Roman Catholic-Pentecostal Dialogue,” PNEUMA The Journal of the Society for Pentecostal Studies Vol. 22, No. 2 (Fall 2000): 220~221.

[50] Veli-Matti, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, 104.

[51] Kärkkäinen, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, 105.

[52] Kärkkäinen, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, 105.

[53] Kärkkäinen, Toward a pneumatological theology : Pentecostal and ecumenical perspectives on ecclesiology, soteriology, and theology of mission, 105.

 

Last Updated on Wednesday, 11 January 2012 20:38
 
Yu Wai Mui: Look from the windows of megachurch Hillsong PDF Print E-mail
Written by Publisher   
Wednesday, 11 January 2012 19:26

 

Look from the windows of megachurch Hillsong, what are the elements to foster church growth in Hong Kong?

Referee: Dr. Benedict Kwok
Author: Yu Wai Mui

1. Introduction

In definition, megachurch refers to any Protestant congregation with a sustained average weekly attendance of 2,000 persons or more in its worship services. They usually have a charismatic senior minister. Community Care (Social service) and outreach ministries are in multitude extend.[1] In Australia, Hillsong Church (新頌教會) was celebrated its 25th year when we went to join their Sydney Hillsong Conference 2011 during 4-8 July.

Hillsong has regular attraction of 20,000 people to its weekend services in Australia[2]. Its church growth doubled in size every 12 months for the past four years.[3] With the emphasis of individual’s relationship with the invisible God, self-recognition of personal evangelism is essential. Fundamentally, it has word-of-mouth marketing on the quality music and upbeat services. In the “symbolic marketplace”, Hillsong’s size, rapid growth and commercial “success” has earned a lot in terms of finance, reputation, God’s power and presence.[4]

We have to consider our threefold common commitment (to the church, to its mission and to its renewal).[5] What can we learn from this megachurch Hillsong? I am looking from the windows of Hillsong. By reviewing the elements of Hillsong’s church growth, different areas including church leadership, political influence, reach and outreach, community care, worshipping & youth ministry, and support, are discussed in details with local Hong Kong examples. Church’s calling is to develop a Christian counter-culture rather than call to ape the world.[6] “A living church” is our ultimate goal.

2. Church Leadership

In Bill Hybels’ book “Courageous Leadership” says that excellence honors God and inspires people.[7] Pastors are not CEO.

Senior Pastor Brian Houston and his wife Bobbie were the main leaders in Hillsong[8]. Pastor Brian is a tall man with piercing blue eyes. “No worries” is his living style. His prayer and devotion alone with the Harley-Davidson stimulated cultural changes to Hillsong. He is attractive and has the charismas of being a preacher and church leader. Hillsong Church’s self-proclaimed mission: “To reach and influence the world by building a large Bible-based church, changing mindsets, and empowering people to lead and impact every sphere of life"[9] is leading to the successful growth of a megachurch. Do we have charismatic pastors like Hillsong Church’s Brian & Bobbie Houston in Hong Kong?

In Hong Kong, most of the pastors in local churches are serious and always do not smile. About 90% whom I met are traditional scholar style. During the sermon, dignified atmosphere caused the congregants in stress. At least, these are my personal experience. In my opinion, there are a number of charismatic local pastors. Since the step down of Rev. Eddie Kin-Ming Ma from Shau Kei Wan Baptist Church (馬建明牧師 - 筲箕灣浸信會, Web: http://skwbc.org/), his amazing worshipping with guitar and message were no longer been seen in the public. On the other hand, I really missed the vivid speech of Rev. Ping-Kwong Li of Methodist Church (李炳光牧師 - 香港循道衛理聯合教會, Web: http://pkli.com/), who had retired and he was my chaplain when I was in primary school.

The Hillsong (Leadership) Network (Web: https://hillsongnetwork.com/) launched with the objective of connecting individuals and churches finally to be partnership. Local church leaders were encouraged to join the Hillsong Network for continuous support and growth. Hillsong’s signature event – the annual Hillsong Conference in Sydney and its planted area welcomes local and even overseas church leaders to join. Resources, online training and courses are available.

Besides life-on-life discipleship, Christian education is important because “a living church is a learning church”.[10] Looking around, some of our local churches already have their own training center, seminary or bible institute. For example, in Yan Fook Bible Institute of EFCC Yan Fook Church (中國播道會恩福堂 - 恩福聖經學院), they have special programs for the so-called three stages for each “seeker” (new believer).[11] Rev. Patrick Wing-Chi So (蘇穎智牧師) emphasized that the establishment of a system rather than depending on a specific person[12]. Because of group leader training and bible training, they raised many coworkers, deacons and elders. Pastor Geoff Surratt in his book also mentioned about the most and the first common mistake of pastors in hindering the church growth is “Trying to do it all”[13]. It makes pastors overworked and underproductive. There is no biblical warrant for the so-called one-man band.[14] I had heard about a half-jokingly parable from our Executive Director, who is based in London: “Don’t keep monkeys on your back”. The most important thing is to take a proactive approach to building the pastoral team with right people and work together following the biblical principles. “When you are the first person, you are a crazy guy; when you have 1 more person, you are a leader; then, 3 as a CLOUD!” [15] (reference Matthew 18:20)

Other examples such as Church Institute in EFCC Tung Fook Church (中國播道會同福堂 - 教會學校) and 611 College of 611 Bread of Life Christian Church (611靈糧堂 - 611學房) are closed group for the training of church leaders and parishioners only. We nowadays have about 1,250 local (Chinese) churches in Hong Kong[16], where the majority of them had less than 100 people. The training of people to be servants of God in proclaiming His Word is the mission of seminaries such as Alliance Bible Seminary of C & M A (基督教宣道會 - 建道神學院), Evangel Seminary of EFCC (中國播道會 - 播道神學院), Divinity School of Chung Chi College of CUHK (香港中文大學 - 崇基學院神學), and 20 others in Hong Kong.

In Hong Kong, we do not have a network like Hillsong (Leadership) Network for sharing of resources among pastors and church workers. In practice, we sometimes have difficulties to invite pastors of different denominations together to join a single event. If we are unity in Jesus, we could network pastors to share their experience in all aspect especially how to lead a church. Small churches might benefit from such valuable experience on how to establish a health church.

3. Political Influence

In Australia, Hillsong factor in political influence were hot discussion points.[17] In 2002, the Prime Minister, John Howard attended the opening of Hillsong’s 3,500-seat auditorium at Castle Hill. Peter Costello, the treasurer, has spoken at Hillsong’s annual conference.[18] The pre-election visits by politicians, Peter Costello and Bob Carr to Hillsong in 2007, were scrutinized by the public that these contacts were evidence of lobbying a church with 20,000-plus members. Hillsong’s influence in Australia’s politic has many adverse comments.

I had once joined the Purple Antelope Fellowship (Sisters Group) of EFCC Kong Fook Church (港福堂) during December 2008 to July 2009 (Web: http://www.kongfok.org/sisters/). And, I attended the Saturday or Sunday Service in Kong Fook Church with average of twice a month. In January 2009, parishioners were being asked to send an email or letter to “say no” to the Review of the Control of Obscene and Indecent Articles Ordinance. The Community Care Group of Kong Fook Church even sent every sister a powerpoint file to explain the circumstances surroundings, and asking to join the petition on 10 January, 2009 outside the Legislative Counsel.

In 2010, Rev. Daniel Chung-man Ng had a public speaking at a prayer meeting (「為香港求平安」祈禱會) on 7 February. There had noise about complaining that he was campaigning for voters to castblank votes" in an upcoming special election on 16 May, viewed as a referendum on political reform in the territory. The pastor in-charge of Purple Antelope came over and gave advance warning of the expected harass by protestors to church services on coming Sunday, 18 April. Various critics were coming from both inside and outside the church in the following months.

In fact, some of the government key persons, politicians and financial talents are members of Kong Fook Church. Although we were belonging to different cell groups, we could meet them on the Saturday or Sunday Services and annual Christmas banquet. As told by one of our Board of Directors, they have regular prayer meetings (political prayer breakfast) in the government office daily, weekly and monthly for different level of networking. Another example is, Senior Pastors of an English church and Christian organization’s management people had joint the monthly breakfast fellowship on the top bank’s Level 41 Turner Room. In workplace, Full Gospel Business Men’s Fellowship International (HK) (香港國際全備福音商人團契, Web: http://www.fgb.com.hk/db/index.html) has members from more than 200 different churches. CBMC Hong Kong Limited (香港工商基督徒協會, Web: http://www.cbmc.org.hk/) now has prayer meeting in more than 11 districts. What is the reflection? To flourish the church growth, would God bless them to closely hear from Lord about their mission of evangelism in their professional field.

Pastor Brian’s speaking of people “see the growth of the church as a threat” and “they would feel is the growing of fundamentalism and what that threatens”[19], in certain extent could not apply to Hong Kong. In Chinese culture, the separation between church and government is traditionally unbreakable. In turn, Mr. Bruce Clemenger, the president of the Evangelical Fellowship of Canada had spoken of “Church should speak into politics rather than becoming a partisan”[20] is a reminder to us. Because politicians are in public service and they care about their community, government, and nation, as church it is important to find the common ground and ways that we can serve Him.

4. Reach and Outreach

A living church is an evangelizing church.[21] A church should not be a closed-door, a four-walls and sacrosanct place. Gospel is not only for personal salvation, but it is for the salvation of the entire culture and society.[22] We need to reach out to the community and the world around us (Reference Acts 2:44~45). Our church should ongoing to be the center of a community.

Megachurch Hillsong is facing with many critics. But, Pastor Brian’s belief of “ongoing work of the Holy Spirit in individual believers and holistic mission” had driven the church growth of Hillsong to mega even global reach to many countries. The global reach of Hillsong Church to London, Paris, Kiev (Ukraine), Moscow (Russia) and Berlin (Germany) in 2007[23] had church plants there. Meanwhile, it also has services in Cape Town (South Africa), Stockholm (Sweden) and New York City. Megachurch in multi-site model as interpreted by evangelical pastor Rick Warren as “one church, multiple locations. One church, multiple venues”. It is not a modern phenomenon, but a biblical concept.[24]

The reaching of local churches however is planting principally in 18 districts of Hong Kong. For example, my mother church’s denomination member, North Point Alliance Church (宣道會北角堂http://www.npac.org.hk/intro/index.htm) had branch churches like Sun Oi Church (宣愛堂) and Sun Kei Church (宣基堂), which were already independent churches in Tseung Kwan O. Lok Fu Alliance Church (樂富堂), Discovery Bay Alliance Church (愉景灣堂), Tung Chung Church (東涌堂), Yan Tong Church (油塘堂) and Sun Lai Church (宣麗堂) in Ma Wan are branch churches in different districts.

English church like Evangelical Community Church (also known simply as ECC, Web: http://www.ecchk.org/) in Kowloon began a new church in Hong Kong island, which is Island ECC (Web: http://www.islandecc.hk/) in 1999. In October 2010, Island ECC planted a daughter church Watermark Community Church (Web: http://watermarkchurch.hk/) in Cyberport. Besides local planting, many churches have global reach to overseas. For example, 611 Bread of Life Christian Church has 5,000 congregation and it had already planted more than 10 branch churches in overseas, especially in Malaysia, Singapore, Macau and Philippine.

In the Sydney Hillsong Conference 2011, there was only one ‘offering’ talk that got our backs up. That speaker was not associated with Hillsong church. Initially in the video clip, it showed the story of a poor girl, who supported by an NGO since her childhood. She was educated, graduated and trained. Now, she was employed by that NGO as a ministry staff and helping kids like her childhood. After the video, this lady came up to the stage and appeal for the NGO. It is a completely “helping people to self-help”, then “helping people to self-serving”. “Tell stories” becoming the primary means of communicating beliefs[25], which adopted by many English churches in Hong Kong to broadcast congregant’s “My Story” on WEB sites.

There had complaint by conference attendees about raising the offering for poor. However, this is the purpose of the conference as told by Pastor Bobbie. And, calls for offering during each Hillsong Conference are part of the program and it is the ultimate goal of the church – helping the poor. Pastor Brian believed that the Spirit was upon him to reach hurting people. The sharing of environment, homelessness, slavery, etc. in the 2011 conference was tackled well. “The church is not peripheral to the world; the world is peripheral to the church. The church is Christ’s body in which he speaks and acts and fills everything with his presence.”[26] is the motto of Hillsong. These 15,000 delegates are coming from all around the world with different ethnic, cultural and denominational background to come together for worshipping and glorify Lord. We four people were one of them in 2011.

Outreach programs can be diversified. The Hillsong Foundation at 2007 supported many outreach activities. It closely works with Samaritan’s Purse, Watoto in Uganda, and Joyce Meyer Ministries. Hope Rwanda (Web: www.hoperwanda.org), which was founded by Darlene Zschech and her husband Mark in 2004. However, Zschech left Hillsong and her husband are now the Senior Pastors of Hope Unlimited Church.

In Hong Kong, we could simply co-operate with Red Cross in the blood donation activity. Although my mother church has about 400 congregations only, we had already held twice blood donation in the community center. We supplied snack and drinks for the donors. Our volunteers helped out to distribute flyers about church and chatting with them. We are telling people who we are in the community. In Mid-Autumn Festival, we have brothers and sisters to visit the elderly who are living alone or without families. Mini moon cakes are given away. Of course, some of them had been invited to join our church services.

People love to eat. Our Senior Ministry had hosted a dinner party for the elderly in last year. Most of them are living alone or referral by the social service centers. We share Jesus love with the community by host a meal. They joined our Saturday Afternoon Service, which is especially for elderly and worship with Gospel in Cantonese Opera. Praise the Lord that a few of them were baptized in these two years.

Many kids need a safe place to go after school before their parents get home from work. Sometimes, kids might even just need somewhere to go to do their homework. After school program like tutoring offered by church is most welcomed by parents. For youth, some churches have Students’ Study Room. Also, we might join the multi social service agency, St. James’ Settlement as volunteer to support charities, culture and civic activities. Let’s bring Jesus’ love into the community.

If you have passion to serve, you may go overseas outreach when holidays and budget allowed. A mission trip could help to bring unity to our world. If we take the church out into the world, the world will come into you. Megachurch like Yan Fook Church, they have some permanent outreach stations. You may help with disaster relief. For example, my girl-friend, Kman is a retired lady, who is now serving in Cambodia as lay missionary. Island ECC has over 200 outreach programs per year. Refugee Ministry of The Vine Church is another kind of outreach missionary program.

5. Community Care

A living church is a caring and sharing church.[27] Generosity has always been a characteristic of the people of God. This is kingdom-inspired generosity. Fellowship is the truth of both what we share in together and what we should share out together (Reference: Acts 4:32~37). Hillsong has teaching of “it is the responsibility of individual Christian disciples to take revival into the world”. (Matthew 28:19a). As church, we should be a community-gathering place as well and move into the neighborhood. Let’s minister to our neighbors and communities.

Hillsong City Care (formerly Hillsong Emerge) extends the community arm of Hillsong to help & support people when they need help. An example of Raelene & Rachel, whom be helped by Hillsong to start a fashion business and won $15,000 from the Social Ventures Australia “Big Boost” awards.[28] Further surfing the current WEB site of Hillsong City Care (Web: http://myhillsong.com/citycare/citycare-course), there are more than that, for example, Counseling, Sexual Abuse: Freedom & Education Program, Emergency Relief, Health Center, Strengthening Families, etc.

In consideration of financial support, holidays need, mission in different context, etc., some churches in Hong Kong are actually doing a good job. For example, community center and social services center affiliated with Methodist churches, Anglican (Sheng Kung Hui) churches, Catholic Diocese of Hong Kong, C & M A churches like North Point Alliance Church and Shatin Alliance Church, etc. provide community care and service.

On 2 April 2010, Rev. Peter Chi-Dik Ho (何志滌牧師) of EFCC Tung Fook Church at an Easter Joint Worship in AsiaWorld-Expo, he reminded the 4,000 congregation to follow Jesus to be salt & light, and learn from “A cup of water” (「一杯涼水」, reference Matthew 25:31~46; John 7:37~39)[29]. Christian social responsibility depends on socially responsible Christians. We have weapons for social change, such as prayer, evangelism, example, argument, action and suffering.[30] Tung Fook Church’s social services are in wide range (Web: http://www.tungfook.com/tungfook/tfwv7/social.aspx). For example, they have run two Alpha for Prison courses in a year. They welcome ex-inmates to join the church and they have two baptized in last year. To care about people with intellectual disabilities, they have a “Gem Ministry” for them, including their parents and guardians. Another well-established gospel station for the handicap, The Ark Community (Web: http://www.arkcomm.org/home/) is formed by the Shatin Alliance Church and Breakthrough Corporate. It has worship and service, Sunday school, outreach programs, fellowship and evangelized activities.

6. Worshipping and Youth Ministry

In a survey released by the Hong Kong Church Renewal Movement, young people attending church had grown from 11,000 in 2004 to nearly 25,000 in 2009 (with 56% growth).[31]
Youth is a missionary focus group. The development of youth work and the integration of church ministry with student outreach are now the focus of many churches. The youth tend to be impatient with the traditional structures of the church. The new cultural reality is searching of its soul. They prefer relaxed, spontaneous and liberated gathering. Many Gen-Xers no longer follow the religion of their parents.[32] The postmodern values are experiential, spiritual, communal, creative, environmental, global, holistic, etc.[33] The postmodern generations have simply chosen to ignore the organized (traditional) church despite the spiritual requirement or condition.[34]

A living church is a worshipping church.[35] The church worship should be both joyful and reverent. Hillsong Church members are mostly next generation consisting of young professionals. Facing the threat of post-modernism, this is somewhat a cultural matching with our youth, young adults and even Gen-X service. Hillsong started their Hillsong conferences regularly in church and school halls in 1985[36]. The influence of Hillsong’s music to the contemporary Christians is incredible. Hillsong Church is taking music and message out of the church and into the lives of those in need.[37] Postmodern worship embraces the experienced Word and brings the body back into the worship event. Worship expresses a Body & Mind Holism.[38] Body movements and dance moves featured on Hillsong church music and Pentecostal-style congregational songs.[39] In the Hillsong conference, it usually showed a typical Hillsong-branded depiction of the Great Commission. By the use of sophisticated moving visual picture and strobe lights showed Hillsong’s self-proclaimed mission.

Pastor Rick Warren said "A healthy body is made up of large group worship, small group fellowship."[40] Irrespective of the style of worship, God is both audience and participant with us all the way. Congregations are not an audience watching the people on stage but entire congregation is actively and creatively engaged in offering worship. Did you ever sing the song “Shout to the Lord” with your congregants on the Sunday Service? This song was written by a famous worship pastor Darlene Zschech.[41] Each week, it is estimated that 25 million Christians sing this song worldwide[42].

With their youth ministry and band, Hillsong United (Web: http://hillsongunited.com) had already released about 50 praise and worship recordings and selling worldwide. With such publicity, the Hillsong music penetrates other churches, and other denominations. With the model of event-style evangelism and using simple visuals, songs and multimedia, they focus in one purpose and passion: Worship. Hillsong was being criticized on placing their focus and energy on church growth by worshipping music and more of mega marketing[43] in international entertainment. Congregational worship is one of the four “Truth Worship” as defined by John Stott (reference Psalm 149:1).[44] Worship leads to witness and witness to worship. People come to Christ for worship and go for Christ in mission.

Everyone knows that Youth Ministry is the key factor in the church growth. For instance, there are numbers of local worship team and band are playing key roles in Hong Kong, for example, The Vine Band from The Vine Church (released 3 albums already, Web: www.thevineband.com), an outstanding guitarist & singer, Jonathan Pettigrew of International Christian Assembly (ICA), Island ECC (In 2010, the worship team also known as The Emancipated, released its first-ever worship album), Rev Maria Lai-Sze Lau of Methodist Tai Po Church and Pastor Wai-Kay Ng (Web: http://www.5kay.com/) of Spring of Elim Ministry (Web: http://springselim.com/), Rev Eddie Ma & his daughter Johanna Ma’s worship CD by Shau Kei Wan Baptist Church & many others. These are amazing gift from God.

As a youth worker in this postmodern context, we are missionaries and called to dance with the youth culture. With simple living in a holistic life, we are building the Christ-centered community and the body of Christ. I love postmodern and contemporary worship, for example, songs from Hillsong, Planetshakers, Delirious, Tim Hughes, The Vine Band, etc. I had attended many local and overseas churches. Except those traditional churches, I could find at least one song written by Hillsong at every worship service.

7. Support

There were 5,000 volunteers in the Sydney Hillsong Conference 2011. The welcoming by ushers was warm and friendly. They turn the welcome space into a safe place for all delegates.[45] They helped people to find available seats even when it was almost 99.9% full. In the event, you could see many delegates using headphones for live translation, especially Korean. And, all translators including sign language translation are voluntary workers. As commented by Brian Wallis, a UK Pastor attended the Hillsong Conference in UK were[46], the event was community-orientated and sophisticated. To host a megachurch activity, his major concern was the budget on IT, AV equipment, sound systems, venue, etc.

In general, many worshipping conference are held by organizations rather than a unique local church in Hong Kong. Every year, overseas organizations such as Stream of Praise Music Ministries (讚美之泉音樂事工, Web: http://www.sop.org/home/home.aspx) will have their annual tour to Hong Kong. Recently, they just finished one in July at Hong Kong Convention and Exhibition Centre. In some special occasion, like celebrating church or denomination anniversary, joint worship and service of megachurch will use venue like AsiaWorld-Expo, conference centers in Wan Chai and Kowloon Bay. But, this events are likely to be closed group.

We need hardware to support church growth. In 2004, the megachurch EFCC Yan Fook Church moved into a self-built high rise building "Yan Fook Center". Two auditoriums on 2/F and 18/F provided a capacity of 1,800 people (including the third floor attic) and 480 people respectively. In 2007, they celebrated its 20th anniversary in AsiaWorld-Expo. To serve 5000-member, their pastoral staffs were more than 40 and it had more than 20 ministry departments. In estimation, it had average number of 10,000 people participating on Sunday Worship[47].

The back office support of local churches in certain extent could not catch up the technology, which would probably modernize the workflow and administrative work in church’s office in turns helping the church growth. By visiting English churches and research on their Web sites, we could see their WEB-based services and applications advanced their connection with the congregants and probably the public (seeker). When you visit the Web site of most of the English churches in Hong Kong, you could probably see the waterfront of Hong Kong Island, with many commercial buildings in the headline picture.

PayPal is an e-commerce business allowing payments and money transfers to be made through the internet (Web: http://en.wikipedia.org/?title=PayPal). Nowadays, using PayPal as online money transfers serve as a means of donation method by many English churches in Hong Kong. However, it is uncommon in the local church network. Some pastors are still learning to catch the trend of internet. When we did cold call about ministry development to senior pastors of local churches, “Still learning to use internet” is a no surprise answer. These are whole new ballgame and the Web of belief.

8. Conclusion

It was he who gave some to be apostles, some to be prophets, some to be evangelists, and some to be pastors and teachers, to prepare God's people for works of service, so that the body of Christ may be built up.” (Reference Ephesians 4:11~12)

There are no formulas for success in church growth[48]. Sometimes, people take pride of being member of a megachurch. Others might jealous on the mega. I could not forget that a senior pastor was weeping on the phone when we were talking about how difficult to connect all the pastors in his district. Anyway, we do have a number of charismatic megachurch leaders in Hong Kong. They had a wonderful team of pastoral and administration. They fulfill missionary of preaching and teaching to congregants. Church leadership admittedly is the most important factor contributing to the church growth.

In general speaking, the separation of church and government is traditionally in the Chinese network. However, Christian in different government structure, financial organizations, non-government organizations (NGO), private companies, etc. are closely connected despite of their church or denomination background. Political and financial influence is building up inwardly among parishioners in workplace. In turn, it will smooth out the edges of church, government and finance, which will minimize the negative impact to hinder church growth. The diversified reach and outreach programs of local churches brings evangelism. If we can take the church outgoing into the world, so the world will come into us. Evangelism is a way of life, but not only an event.[49] To parishioners or the “being evangelized”, both are win-win situation. God calls us to be a community of love. Evangelism comes through the local church.[50] Looking outward, when our ministries go into communities and reaching our neighbors, it is undeniably contribute to the church growth. That’s why more and more churches are involved in community care.

In Hong Kong, we do not have church music like Hillsong-style congregational singing, large multipurpose auditoria, media-savvy, etc. We mainly are flowering by different music ministries, whatever they are local or overseas. Besides English, songs in Mandarin and Cantonese are not drab to younger crowd and their ministries are excellence in creativity, worship, multimedia, etc. It sustains excellence in bringing people to God. Whatever software or hardware support, church administration and event-driven evangelism will help the church growth into a health church.

9. Reference And Completed Reading

Evans, Mark. “Studies in Popular Music : Open up the Doors : Music in the Modern Church”. Equinox Publishing Ltd (Dec 2006): 102~124. Ecumenical Information Network, WEB <http://hkabs.no-ip.org:2051/lib/ein/docDetail.action?docID=10342325> (accessed 26 July 2011). [Reading completed: 1 August 2011]

Gibbs, Eddie, and Bolger, Ryan K. Emerging Churches: creating Christian community in postmodern cultures. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2005. [Reading completed: 4 August 2011]

Goh, Robbie B.H.Hillsong and megachurch practice: semiotics, spatial logic and the embodiment of contemporary evangelical Protestantism”. Material Religion 4.3 (Nov 2008): 284+. Religion and Social Science, Gale (accessed 26 July 2011). [Reading completed: 30 July 2011]

God under Howard. Economist, 00130613, Vol. 375, Issue 8425 (5/7/2005). Religion and Philosophy Collection, EBSCO (accessed 25 July 2011). [Reading completed: 2 August 2011]

Hillsong Church. Brian and Bobbie. Available from < http://brianandbobbie.com/> (accessed 19 July 2011). [Reading completed: 20 July 2011]

Hartford Institute for Religion Research, “Megachurch Definition, ” available from <http://hirr.hartsem.edu/megachurch/definition.html> (accessed 21 July 2011). [Reading completed: 22 July 2011]

Ho, Peter Chi-Dik. “A cup of water, 2 April 2010, from <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_Dh1icbLzA>.

Jones, Tony. Postmodern youth ministry: exploring cultural shift, creating holistic connections, cultivating authentic community. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan, 2001. [Reading Completed: 10 August 2011]

Kwon, Lillian. “Warren: Megachurches, Multi-Site Venues Are Biblical,” Gospel Herald (12 February 2010). Available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/46067/>. [Reading completed: 19 August 2011]

Leung, Luke. “EFC President: Church should speak into politics rather than becoming partisan

,” Gospel Herald (8 April 2008). Available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/church/44183/>. [Reading completed: 19 August 2011]

Leung, Luke. “President of CGTS: Social Concern as a Driving Force for Church Growth,” Gospel Herald (15 July 2008). Available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/44260/>. [Reading completed: 19 August 2011]

Li, Linda. “The Secret of Church Growth Series: Yan Fook Case Study I,” Gospel Herald (28 September 2007). Available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/43915/>. [Reading completed: 19 August 2011]

Li, Linda. “The Secret of Church Growth Series: Yan Fook Case Study II,” Gospel Herald (4 October 2007). Available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/43934/>. [Reading completed: 19 August 2011]

Liu, K Y. “Let God’s Word Be Alive In Worship – Review,” Alliance Bible Seminary Bulletin 164 (July 2011): 20. [Reading completed: 30 July 2011]

Meehan, Chris. “Research and humor grow huge flock,” Religious Herald (15 March 2005). Available from <http://www.religiousherald.org/> [Reading completed: 20 August 2011]

Stott, John. The Living Church: Convictions of a lifelong pastor. Norton Street, Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2007. [Reading completed: 5 August 2011]

Tucker, Ruth A. Left Behind in a Megachurch World: How God Works through Ordinary Churches. Grand Rapids, Michigan: BakerBooks, 2006. [50% Reading: 14 August 2011]

Vu, Michelle A. “10 Stupid Things That Keep Churches from Growing,” Gospel Herald (15 January 2009). Available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/44983/>. [Reading completed: 19 August 2011]

Wong, Francis. “Hong Kong's Protestant Churches Blooming,” Gospel Herald (2 June 2010). Available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/46386/> [Reading completed: 19 July 2011]

Wong, S F. “香港 : 教會普查:每周有29萬人出席崇拜,” Kingdom Revival Times (HK) (3 June 2010). Available from <http://www.krt.com.hk/modules/news/article.php?storyid=6835> [Reading completed: 21 July 2011]

Wunderink, Susan. “Faith and Hope in Ukraine ”. Christianity Today, Vol. 52, Issue 10 (Oct 2008): 70~76. Religion and Philosophy Collection, EBSCO (accessed 25 July 2011). [Reading completed: 26 July 2011]

Zinchini, Casandra. “Taking Revival to the World: Australia’s Largest and Most Influential Church Extend its Research to London, Paris and Kiev”. Christianity Today 51, no. 10 (2007): 34~40. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCO (accessed 20 July 2011). [Reading completed: 22 July 2011]

Zschech, Darlene. Available from (accessed 27 July 2011). [Reading completed: 27 July 2011]



[1] Hartford Institute for Religion Research, “Megachurch Definition, ” available from <http://hirr.hartsem.edu/megachurch/definition.html> (accessed 21 July 2011).

[2] Casandra Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World: Australia’s Largest and Most Influential Church Extend its Research to London, Paris and Kiev”. Christianity Today 51, no. 10 (October 2007): 34. ATLA Religion Database with ATLASerials, EBSCOhost (accessed 20 July 2011).

[3] Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World ,“ 37.

[4] Robbie B.H. Goh,Hillsong and megachurch practice: semiotics, spatial logic and the embodiment of contemporary evangelical Protestantism”. Material Religion 4.3 (Nov 2008): 284+. Religion and Social Science, Gale (accessed 26 July 2011).

[5] John Stott, The Living Church: Convictions of a lifelong pastor. (Norton Street, Nottingham: Inter-Varsity Press, 2007), 21.

[6] John Stott, The Living Church, 14.

[7] Chris Meehan, “Research and humor grow huge flock,” Religious Herald (15 March 2005), from <http://www.religiousherald.org/>

[8] Hillsong Church, Brian and Bobbie, from < http://brianandbobbie.com/> (accessed 19 July 2011)

[9] Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World ,“ 35.

[10] Stott, The Living Church, 24.

[11] Linda Li, “The Secret of Church Growth Series: Yan Fook Case Study I,” Gospel Herald (28 September 2007); available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/43915/>.

[12] Linda Li, “The Secret of Church Growth Series: Yan Fook Case Study II,” Gospel Herald (4 October 2007); available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/43934/>.

[13] Michelle A. Vu, “10 Stupid Things That Keep Churches from Growing,” Gospel Herald (15 January 2009); available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/44983/>.

[14] Stott, The Living Church, 81.

[15] K Y Liu, “Let God’s Word Be Alive In Worship – Review,” Alliance Bible Seminary Bulletin 164 (July 2011): 20.

[16] S F Wong, “香港 : 教會普查:每周有29萬人出席崇拜,” Kingdom Revival Times (HK) (3 June 2010); available from <http://www.krt.com.hk/modules/news/article.php?storyid=6835>

[17] Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World ,“ 35.

[18] God under Howard. Economist, 00130613, Vol. 375, Issue 8425 (5/7/2005); Religion and Philosophy Collection, EBSCOhost (accessed 25 July 2011).

[19] Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World ,“ 36.

[20] Luke Leung, “EFC President: Church should speak into politics rather than becoming partisan

,” Gospel Herald (8 April 2008), from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/church/44183/>

[21] Stott, The Living Church, 33.

[22] Luke Leung, “President of CGTS: Social Concern as a Driving Force for Church Growth,” Gospel Herald (15 July 2008), from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/44260/>.

[23] Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World ,“ 34.

[24] Lillian Kwon, “Warren: Megachurches, Multi-Site Venues Are Biblical,” Gospel Herald (12 February 2010); available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/46067/>.

[26] Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World ,“ 34.

[27] Stott, The Living Church, 29.

[28] Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World ,“ 38.

[29] Peter Chi-Dik Ho. “A cup of water, 2 April 2010, from <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_Dh1icbLzA>.

[30] Stott, The Living Church, 145.

[31] Francis Wong, “Hong Kong's Protestant Churches Blooming,” Gospel Herald (2 June 2010); available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/46386/>

[32] Eddie Gibbs and Ryan K. Bolger, Emerging Churches: creating Christian community in postmodern cultures. (Grand Rapids, Michigan: Baker Academic, 2005), 23.

[34] Gibbs and Bolger, Emerging Churches, 21.

[35] Stott, The Living Church, 33.

[36] Mark Evans, “Studies in Popular Music : Open up the Doors: Music in the Modern Church”. Equinox Publishing Ltd (Dec 2006): 93. Ecumenical Information Network, WEB <http://hkabs.no-ip.org:2051/lib/ein/docDetail.action?docID=10342325> (accessed 26 July 2011).

[37] Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World ,“ 40.

[38] Gibbs and Bolger, Emerging Churches, 78.

[39] Mark Evans, “Studies in Popular Music,” 94.

[40] Lillian Kwon, “Warren: Megachurches, Multi-Site Venues Are Biblical,” Web.

[41] Darlene Zschech, available from (accessed 27 July 2011).

[42] Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World ,“ 34.

[43] Ruth A. Tucker, Left Behind in a Megachurch World: How God Works through Ordinary Churches. (Grand Rapids, Michigan: BakerBooks, 2006), 88.

[44] Stott, The Living Church, 39.

[45] Gibbs and Bolger, Emerging Churches, 121.

[46] Zinchini, “Taking Revival to the World ,“ 37.

[47] Linda Li, “The Secret of Church Growth Series: Yan Fook Case Study I,” Gospel Herald (28 September 2007); available from <http://www.gospelherald.net/article/mcat/43915/>.

[48] Ruth A. Tucker, Left Behind in a Megachurch World, 105.

[49] Gibbs and Bolger, Emerging Churches, 79.

[50] Stott, The Living Church, 71.

 

Last Updated on Wednesday, 11 January 2012 19:26
 
劉韻詩:從T. F. Torrance的三一神觀初探三一崇拜觀 PDF Print E-mail
Written by Publisher   
Wednesday, 11 January 2012 20:54

從T. F. Torrance的三一神觀初探三一崇拜觀

 

推介人:郭鴻標博士

作者:劉韻詩

 

 

1. 引言

本文的重點在於探討三一神在基督教崇拜中的角色與運作,初探三一崇拜觀,並以此為崇拜的根基來察驗教會崇拜的內容。T. F. Torrance在中國四川的宣教士家庭出生,[1] 作為初探中國本土的崇拜神學,筆者選擇從他的三一神觀入手。筆者將先探討T. F. Torrance的三一神觀重點,在其中提及三一神相互之間的關係與運作,然後再嘗試將其放在崇拜的框架下思想三一神在崇拜中的角色,最後帶出對現今崇拜的反省。

2. T. F. Torrance的三一神觀重點

T. F. Torrance認為三位一體的教義既是福音(evangelical)──從父透過子並在聖靈裡而出(from the Father through the Son in the Spirit),亦是頌讚(doxological)──在聖靈裡透過子歸予父(in the Spirit through the Son to the Father)。

三個位格的工作各有不同。一方面,神既是獨一的主,又是聖父。另一方面,基督捨己,打破人神之間的阻隔,使兩者可以彼此親近,而藉著聖靈,人更可與主相通。 [2] 雖然工作不同,但是在本質上,聖靈與聖父、聖子本體相同,反映三者的內在關係:耶穌基督為我們和對我們所做的,以及聖靈在我們身上所做的,正是神為我們、對我們和在我們身上所做的事。 [3] 尼西亞君士坦丁堡信條的用語「同質」(homoousia)可對此作進一步解釋。它指出,耶穌基督上帝的獨生子在存有(Being 和行動(Act)之中與父為一。耶穌基督為我們和向著我們做的,聖靈在我們裡面所做的工,就是上帝他自身為我們做、向著我們做和在我們裡面做的。[4]

對於此種關係,Torrance認為「互滲互存」perichoresis)一字最能深化和釐清三位在一體之內的關係。 [5] 在「本質相同」的基礎上,「互滲互存」能夠反映聖父、聖子、聖靈互動、彼此內住、互相滲透的一面。「互滲互存」亦指聖父、聖子、聖靈之間的愛永遠走動,並且不住向外湧流給我們。 [6] 「本質相同」固然表明處於不同位格的聖父、聖子、聖靈是同一位上帝,但仍得由「互滲互存」鞏固,以表明每個位格都可以是整全的上帝,因為其他位格內住其中。 [7] 這三位在自我啟示(self-revelation)與自我溝通(self-communication)中彼此相緊扣。

Torrance認為「互滲互存」表明內在三一存在於啟示的直觀之中,[8] 他指出認識神的過程可為三個層面,而首個層面就是福音與崇拜,信徒在崇拜之中與耶穌相遇,用敬拜讚美來朝見神,以回應其中福音的宣講和聖經的詮釋。此乃群體經驗,而非個人經驗。信徒群體不但默想耶穌生平,還會默想使徒的傳教活動。藉著這些敬拜、默想,信徒將在直覺上領略到神是三位一體的神。此層面又可稱為「初期神學」,因為此時混雜經驗、概念、歷史觀念、神學觀念。然而,對於往後的神學層面以及更高的神學層面,此層面是不可或缺的基礎。 [9] 在此基礎下,信徒能認識三一神經世的一面(the economic trinity),從而認識三一神的本質(the ontological trinity), [10] 並將頌讚歸予這位三一神。即是,信徒能在崇拜之中認識三一神,回應三一神。

所謂「三一神經世的一面」是指被啟示出來的神聖位格以及他們在救贖歷史中的活動,[11] 這涉及三一神的經世本質和時間性。Tertullian指出在創世期及聖經舊約中,上帝內部已經存在「經世」(oikonomia),並在道成肉身中以救恩的方式顯示出來。[12] Torrance進而指出上帝作為父、子和聖靈,將自身彰顯在歷史事件中。如果把這些福音事件從它們歷史的根部強行分離,那麼福音的事件是空的。[13] 而三位一體以及聖經本身的奧秘,就是在於上帝自身俯就,限制自身進入人類的歷史之中。[14] 在上帝因為人的有限性而「俯就」並「自我限制」之中,可以看到上帝為世人的救贖而安排。[15] 它雖然是藉著基督在聖靈裡面從上帝的救贖活動中啟示出來,然而它是上帝在時間性裡面彰顯出來的永恆,展示了神聖存有的同一性以及三位格的統一性。[16]

Torrance的討論依據是Karl Barth的《教會教義學》的第一原理:上帝自我啟示為聖父、聖子、聖靈。Karl Barth解釋的「存有的模式」(Mode of Being):作為客觀和主觀確立起來有關上帝的知識,並藉著上帝自身所引導的知識,這種主體和客體都是藉著聖靈、父和子的上帝知識,並上帝愛的基礎,臨到人身上,使人從心底湧出對上帝的頌讚。[17] 而頌聲的上帝(doxological)是在經世之中為著人的救贖所彰顯的上帝,[18] 是上帝使自己作為獨一的上帝被認識的途徑,[19] 既在歷史中顯現,但其本身卻是永恆的。另一方面,從「同質」的角度看,Karl Barth認為經世三一在於理解救贖的歷史性,而上帝的內在三一與經世三一的關係,在於上帝是在他的存有之中活動(位格),[20] Torrance解釋為「落實在行動中、不可相互分離的存有」。[21]

章雪富認為,若先以內在三一為核心,再擴展到「經世」,便會得出這結論:上帝不只是救贖者,還是愛本身。上帝自身的關係就是愛本身,上帝為人的原故而俯就自限在歷史之中,以自身內在愛的關係來愛人,及至捨棄己身。[22] 在耶穌基督道成肉身之中,我們可以藉著基督的俯就中看到其不可測度的愛。人對這份愛的認知,正是幫助人認識上帝的途徑。[23] 這與約翰一書四16中所言的相符:神對我們的愛,我們已經明白了,而且相信了。 神就是愛;住在愛裡面的,就住在 神裡面, 神也住在他裡面。(和合本)人認識神,是認識祂的本身就是愛。

換言之,上帝三位之間的「同質」及「互滲互存」的關係,透過耶穌基督在聖靈裡從上帝而來的救贖中彰顯出來。藉著上帝「經世」的一面,人得以體會上帝對人的愛,並在其有限之中認識無限的上帝。

人若要明白上帝的本體關係(onto-relation),Torrance提出只要我們內住在這秩序之中,即上帝子民的敬拜群體之中。在教會愛的團契中,透過默想上帝在聖經中的自我啟示、聖餐,以及透過子在聖靈裡的敬拜當中,使我們的內心得以熟悉上帝與我們的互動,學會「適切地」(worthily)思想上帝,就是以一個合乎上帝的敬虔態度去思想衪。[24] 因此,人能夠在敬拜之中認識神,認識三一神在崇拜之中的運作,以及神與人之間的互動。讓我們在此先探討三一神在崇拜之中的角色。

3. 三一神在崇拜中的角色

3.1 三一神為崇拜的發動者,人是回應者

在崇拜之中,三一神是崇拜的發動者。崇拜就是人面對三一神,三一神向人啟示自己,在這啟示下向神發出的回應。White強調這是「啟示與回應」的活動是藉著聖靈加力而成就的。[25] 這一方面顯出基督徒的崇拜是由上帝為起始,由上帝所發動,在中間涉及聖靈的參與,以此推進一步,崇拜是三一神所發動、參與,及完成的。[26]

McClendon認為基督教崇拜不是單向而是雙向的對話,是神聖主與人的溝通。[27] 上帝為人立了三個標記,讓人得以敬拜神。神在以色列史中的作為是「大歷史標記」(great historic sign),[28] 是客觀的;「回憶標記」(remembering signs)將歷史連繫於現今的信徒群體;[29] 「護理標記」(providential signs)是神給予個別生命的指引。[30] 神工作(這些「標記」)並引起人的回應,這回應就是人合理的崇拜。[31] 崇拜是在基督裡靠著聖靈向神的崇拜(the worship of God-in-Chrsit-by-the-Spirit),基本的含意就是一種主動與回應的模式(a pattern of initiative and response)。[32] 這與Torrance對於三一的解釋相似,但是McClendon卻將此放在崇拜的框架下使用。有關三一神在崇拜之中的主動性,George Flororsky亦同意McClendon的說法,他指出「基督教的崇拜是人對神聖呼召(the Divine call)的回應,回應神大能的作為,而這作為的高峰就是基督拯救的行動」,[33] Nikos A. Nissiotis又指出:「崇拜首先並非人的主動,而是在於神在基督裡透過祂的靈所作的拯救行動。」[34] 藉著聖靈的力量,教會作為基督的身體可以進行敬拜,這舉動是來自並導向三一神。由此而言,崇拜並非信徒群體獨白,因為由啟示到回應,其發動者是神,若非如此,人的崇拜便不會發生。[35] 亦因此,崇拜也不是信徒群體用以操縱神的方式,[36] 因為人的崇拜是對神主動的拯救與啟示的恰當回應。

對於這些「回應」,Torrance從實在主義去詮釋,指出神在衪與人之間設立了一種奇妙的相互性(reciprocity),就是當上帝的啟示取用了人的形式,它也召喚人向上帝作出回應行動(answering movement),而這回應行動同時被納入啟示的行動中,成為上帝給人的自我啟示的構成元素之一。因此,上帝給人的清楚自我傳達(self-communication)包含了上帝與人以及人與上帝的相遇,因為當上帝給人的啟示取用了人類口述和文字的方式,它同時也成為了人對上帝順服回應,而這啟示是扎根和落實在人的真實與上帝的真實之中。[37]

由此引申出來,就澄清了基督教崇拜的基礎:不是人的宗教感,而是三一的教義作為崇拜的運作基礎。「我們看見耶穌如何藉著祂的死、復活、升天,以及隨後聖靈的差出,而與父可以建立新的關係。透過子和靈的事工,父得到真正的崇拜者。因此,真正基督教的崇拜神學,其刻心是三一的教義。上帝中的每一位格在建立合乎新約時期的崇拜,各自扮演獨特而有意義的角色。」[38]

3.2 以基督為中心的崇拜

當我們以拯救和啟示作為崇拜的角度去看崇拜時,我們不難發現,基督的位格在此顯得重要,基督的拯救和在新約中的啟示,成為了基督教崇拜的中心

McClendon同意耶穌基督的中心位置是在這些偉大的象徵中有目共睹的。[39]

韓高(Hengel)指出,在歌羅西書三章16節中,在「用詩章、頌詞、靈歌歌頌神」之前一句平行句子「把基督的道理,豐豐富富的存在心裡」(和合本),是強調了在教會的敬拜中,總要宣揚有關基督的道理,而O’Brien也贊同,就是宣揚以基督為中心的信息。[40] 敬拜以基督為中心,就是說我們靠聖子耶穌已完成的救贖,得以在聖父面前敬拜,並且靠聖靈來發出讚美,感謝救贖之恩,所以,主耶穌超時空的工作是基督徒敬拜的核心,[41] 是主旨也是意義。[42]

對於Torrance而言,他曾說他的神學是基督中心的神學,因為「耶穌基督是我們敬拜上帝的中心」。[43] 耶穌基督道成肉身,讓人認知三一神經世的一面,進而認識三一神的本質。耶穌基督是認知上帝的唯一途徑,衪是上帝真理的本身(Being)又是真理的道(Word of Truth)。[44] 祂在神人之間建立了上帝的真啟示及人對上帝的真知識。一切信仰的基礎就在於透過耶穌基督並在祂裡面,把上帝最核心的形象向我們彰顯,因為基督就是上帝形象的實體(consubstantial with the Godhead)。在基督裡並藉著祂,我們知道祂的身位(person)及本體(Being)就是上帝的形象及實體(reality),這使基督教信仰的意象和概念在上帝裡面成為客觀不可改變的基礎。[45]

基督的位格成為崇拜的中心,第一個原因在於:若非道成肉身,人不能認識有關上帝的知識。耶穌,道成肉身的基督,正是神學知識的基礎,衪不僅具有經驗知識的可能,且更是指向無限上帝的本體。[46] 上帝是真理,但上帝即超過人的認知能力。既然經驗語言不足描述上帝,Torrance提出只有「道成肉身」(Incarnation)可以使人認知神。「道成肉身是上帝謙卑自己,使衪進入可決定的(determination)、有條件的、及概念的有限世界中,又在時空中取了有形的身體,就是耶穌。」[47] 道成肉身之可能成為神學語言,因為在基督裡我們有對話(dialogue),人與上帝無限者不能有對話,只有透過耶穌與神對話,耶穌好像「無限者」(infinite)的翻譯,把上帝的心意表白出來,使我們可與上帝交通。[48] 基督的道成肉身與復活使上帝的知識變為可知和可經驗,使人神交通成為可能。神在基督裡向人啟示了真理,就是透過祂的道,人認識了真理,[49]「耶穌是上帝的道和存有,化身成了受造之物成了真理的根源和標準。」[50]

再者,道成肉身連結了神與人的時空。Torrance在討論「時空的基督」與「絕對的上帝」時提出,無限的上帝與道成肉身的關連只有耶穌的復活。他提出「二重客體性」(Double Objectivity)去為此解釋。「耶穌在時空的具體客觀事實與上帝超越的客觀緊緊相連,因此耶穌與我們相遇,同時我們亦因基督遇上了我們的主,亦即是上帝。復活是永恆不變的勝利,復活既是歷史事實,在時空中出現,所以是確實的客體,但復活同時超越了時空經驗的常規和範疇,顯明了無限(或不受限制)的上帝的能力,所以無限的上帝亦在時空中有了客體的根據。客體二重性,就是指同一的復活事實,在時空中出現,指向了無限的上帝和有限的經驗界,上帝本體不再是經驗所不能達到的,因為上帝在時空中自己顯露出來。[51] 復活標示著無限的世界,我們不單在有限的經驗世界中生活,我們更有永生的盼望,這盼望不是形上學的思維結果,而是落實在歷史的事實之中。[52] 「時空的基督」與「絕對的上帝」有緊密的關連,我們認識基督,不單認識時空下的耶穌,且認識了上帝本體,這本體就是真理。時空的基督超越了時空,在復活中帶出了無限。[53] 哥林多前書十五17-18帶出這神學的重點:「基督若沒有復活,你們的信就是徒然,你們仍在你們的罪裡。那麼,在基督裡睡了的人也就滅亡了」(和合本)。另一方面,道成肉身和復活並不會影響了上帝的超越性,因為耶穌並非把上帝全然顯露,而是把上帝的心意顯明出來。上帝絕對的本體是不能在有限的時空中被完全了解的。[54] 因此,基督能夠讓人認識三一神,亦唯有基督才能讓人對神有「正確的」認識。

最後,耶穌基督不但讓人認識神,亦是人能夠向神作出回應和敬拜的原因。我們認識上帝自我啟示以及作出回應,是當這啟示落實在人的歷史存有中,就是透過以色列國這個器皿,以及上帝的道耶穌基督在以色列之中道成肉身,而上帝的啟示實現是在耶穌身上以極深刻人格化的方式(personalized form)得以成就。[55] 這啟示是直接來自上帝的道的啟示行動,是人被造的源頭,卻穿越和打開了疏離的隔閡,把人帶到上帝的光照和認識中,並透過道成肉身,在上帝與人之間設立了一種雙向聯繫(two-way connection),當中人的回應是忠於上帝的啟示,而絕對不是人自我理解的一種折射。[56] 亦由於耶穌基督與父同質(consubstantial),在基督裡面,上帝的真實便得以客觀地透過基督的位格和工作而展現出來。[57] 這位基督就成為人與上帝中間的詮釋者和中保,衪既是上帝也是人,就在化成肉身的人的合一(unity of the incarnate Person)裡成為神──人的道(divine-human Word),這道是從至高之處向人講述並在深處被人聆聽。衪不單是上帝的道來到人間並成為人,祂更以人的身份承載上帝的道,也是道的本身;以神的身份說出來,同一的道更是被人聆聽、講述、和活出來的道。因此,耶穌基督是說,人是透過祂、聯同祂並在祂裡面(through whom and with whom and in whom)才能夠對上帝作出真實和忠誠的回應,而上帝的啟示也因此而圓滿地完成它的行動。[58]

在以基督為中心的崇拜之中,聖靈有何角色呢?鄧紹光認為,聖靈的角色在於讓人明白耶穌基督的真理。耶穌與聖靈分別為客觀的真理與主觀的真理,聖靈讓人明白耶穌所揭示的真理,換句話說,聖靈把耶穌客觀真理轉化成主觀的真理。[59] 換句話說,基督在信徒生命中的存在是客觀的,而聖靈則幫助信徒「認出」基督,這便是聖靈的主觀推動。崇拜是「聖靈所賜予、帶領的回應,因而總是超過人的回應」。[60] 崇拜不在於人自己內在的「宗教敬虔」,而在於他在聖靈和基督的真理中被重生轉化,他也只能在這之中才能作出合神心意的崇拜。[61]

總而言之,只有藉著基督道成肉身,以及聖靈相通,我們才可認識經世三一(the economic trinity),進而探索三一本質(the ontological trinity)。[62] 換言之,只有在基督耶穌裡,我們才可與神相連,才可飲於三一神所蘊含的愛。[63] 因此,在崇拜之中,信徒敬拜的中心是耶穌基督以及祂的救贖,透過聖靈的引導,並其「互滲互存」的本質,信徒同時歸榮耀予三一神。

4. 以三一神觀為基礎的崇拜反思

Torrance曾言:「探究神的內在存有,未免冒犯,但這並不代表我們到此為止,反而要用配得起神的敬虔思維、語言,來敬拜、讚美祂」[64]

因此,筆者嘗試提問:若以上述討論為基礎,現今的教會崇拜有何當作反思的地方?

McClendon提出了兩種錯誤的崇拜觀,其一為那種自我封閉的崇拜,把崇拜轉成了某種治療,討好會眾;另一為把崇拜扭曲為魔法,一種嘗試從神或神的使者上獲得好處的行動。他稱這二者分別為「感性崇拜」(affective worship)及「魔法崇拜」(magic worship)。[65] 前者將崇拜的中心放在人身上而非基督身上,後者則以人為出發點,崇拜不再是人對神作為的回應。他指出崇拜中的確有魔法,因為神是大有能力的,我們可以有此期待,只是,我們必須要明白,事情成就與否,「魔法」的元素卻是超越地上和人類的計算,主動權在神而不在我們的期待。[66]

唐佑之亦提出,三位一體的神是我們敬拜的對象,這樣的信仰是崇拜的基礎。如果只著重神的超越性,崇拜變得過份裝重,可能使信徒過份呆板,不夠活潑。如果只著重神的內貫性,偏重耶穌的拯救,信徒在崇拜的究上可能太隨便,沒有那份虔恭與敬畏;若只著重聖靈的能力與恩賜,活潑的氣氛有,情感的成分太濃,敬拜既失端莊,也缺乏深度。這些是崇拜的通病。[67]

既然如此,以基督為中心的敬拜可以如何表達出來呢?Webber認為上帝的拯救工作是透過敘述歷史和戲劇重演得到記念。[68] 記念不單是重述歷史資料,而是回憶上帝在歷史中工作,拯救一個民族,並最終拯救整個世界。[69] 重申上帝的創造、人類的墜落、道成肉身、祂的復活、祂的再來和萬物的結局。[70] 這種記念創造生命,防止上帝的群體遺忘,因為遺忘是信仰的死亡標記。[71]

聖經可以作為信徒及教會的參考。聖經中滿是紀念上帝在歷史中的行動的歌曲。詩篇中就有多首講述上帝的拯救行動,並讚美上帝以多種方式介入歷史,拯救以色列和世界,例如詩篇一三六篇1-323-26節中可見神在以色列的拯救歷史,表述了神拯救人的事實;又例如出十五1以講述拯救歷史為開始,以21節的讚美為結束;[72] 新約也有歌曲頌讚耶和華在歷史中的工作,稱為「基督詩歌」的歌曲特別突出,它們強調上帝降入到我們的歷史中,為自己挽回世界;又勝過敵人而高升統治世界,例如腓二6-11[73]

筆者認為歌詞對崇拜來說是極其重要的,亦是現今教會在崇拜的預備中首要反省和留意的。重點是要讓教會中的聖樂能承載時代的信仰內涵,同時又不會被潮流文化牽著走,而歌詞就是其中最重要的承載信仰內容的工具。聖經是創作聖詩的無盡寶藏,取之無禁,用之不竭。[74] 首要的,是必須以神作為敬拜的對象:歌詞應以神為主角及主要內容,別讓「我」作主;同時,以基督道成肉身的救贖為中心:要提及讚美的原因,別把空洞無意識的唱頌當作敬拜。

針對基督教詩歌的歌詞,陳康指出詩歌的三一神觀非常薄弱,其中大部份強調基督,卻鮮有形容三者關係及作為。「讓人有一錯覺,以為整個救恩不是藉父、子、靈之同工(cooperative work)而成就」。雖然選用這些詩歌沒有問題,但是若只經常用這些詩歌,便未能陳述整全的信仰,特別是對三一神觀念的宣述。[75]

願教會及信徒都以三一神為崇拜的對象,以基督為崇拜的中心,信徒在整個崇拜中體會三一神的作為,並在讚美歌頌中,宣述這位三而一,一而三的獨一真神。


5. 參考書目

王文基。人如何認識上帝: 設想托倫斯(T. F. Torrance)與莫特曼(Jurgen Moltmann)的聖靈認識論之對話。《神學與教會》第302期(2005.6月),頁345-367

紀哲生。<歌詞的創作>《 聖樂季刊》第63期(19847月),頁8-10

唐佑之。崇拜的三一信仰基礎。《使者》第386期(199511-12月),頁2-5

陳淑芬。基督宗教五百年的會眾詩歌: 悍衛並傳承三一神論: 以台語<聖詩>19642009為例。《台灣神學論刊》第32期(2010年),頁109-134

陳康。<歌詞與我何干: 如何檢視及評價詩歌() >《 時代論壇》第1102期(20081012日),頁13

章雪富。內在三一和經世三一: 適卡爾.巴特(Karl Rahner) 和托倫斯(T.F. Torrance) 的三位一 體神學。《基督教思想評論》第7期(2007),頁137-146

張永信。《崇拜:神學,實踐,更新》。香港:天道,2008

楊慶球。杜倫斯(T.F. Torrance)論科學與神學。《中國神學研究院期刊》第37期(20047月),頁67-100

楊慶球。杜倫斯(Thomas F. Torrance〉。《思》第51期(19979月),頁20-22

楊慶球。杜倫斯(T.F. Torrance)的神學方法論。《華人神學期刊》第1冊第2期(198612月),頁87-105

楊慶球。杜倫斯(T. F. Torrance) 論基督神人二性的「道」 。《中國神學研究院期刊》第49期,頁75-100

鄧紹光。始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜。《山道期刊》第121期(20097月),頁137-154

McClendon, James William. Systematic theology, Vol.2. Nashville : Abingdon Press, 2002.

Peterson, David. Engaging with God : a biblical theology of worship. Grand Rapids, MI : W.B. Eerdmans, 1993.

Torrance, Thomas F. 《實在與福音神學 : 上帝啟示觀的再發現》。香港:基督教文藝出版社, 2011

Torrance, Thomas F. Divine and contingent order . Edinburgh : T & T Clark, 1998.

Torrance, Thomas F. Space, time and incarnation. Edinburgh : T&T Clark, 1997.

Torrance, Thomas F. The Christian doctrine of God, one being three persons. Edinburgh : T&T Clark, 1996.

Torrance, Thomas F. Theological science. Edinburgh : T&T Clark Ltd., 1996.

Torrance, Thomas F. Theology in reconstruction. Grand Rapids, MI : Eerdmans. 1965.

White, James F.. Introduction to Christian worship. Nashville, Tenn. : Abingdon, c1990.

Webber, Robert E.。《崇拜:認古識今》。香港:宣道,2000

Webber, Robert E。《崇拜:歷久常新》。香港:基道,2009



[1] 楊慶球:杜倫斯(Thomas F. Torrance〉,《思》第51期(19979月),頁20

[3] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, 95.

[4] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一: 適卡爾.巴特(Karl Rahner) 和托倫斯(T.F. Torrance) 的三位一 體神學,《基督教思想評論》第7期(2007),頁143-4

[5] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, 168.

[6] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, 171.

[7] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, 173-174.

[8] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, 102.

[9] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, 88-91.

[10] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, 198.

[11] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一,頁137

[12] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一,頁138

[13] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, 6.

[14] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一,頁139

[15] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一,頁139

[16] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, 102.

[17] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一,頁140

[18] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一,頁140

[19] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一,頁141

[20] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一,頁145

[21] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, 120.

[22] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一,頁142

[23] 章雪富:內在三一和經世三一,頁141

[24] Thomas F. Torrance《實在與福音神學 : 上帝啟示觀的再發現》(香港:基督教文藝出版社2011),29

[25] James F. White, Introduction to Christian worship( Nashville, Tenn. : Abingdon, c1990), 23.

[26] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,《山道期刊》第121期(20097月),頁138

[27] McClendon, Systematic theology, 374.

[28] McClendon, Systematic theology, 381.

[29] McClendon, Systematic theology, 382.

[30] McClendon, Systematic theology, 382.

[31] McClendon, Systematic theology, 376.

[32] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,頁146

[33] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,頁139

[34] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,頁139

[35] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,頁139

[36] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,頁139

[37] Thomas F. Torrance《實在與福音神學》,72

[38] David Peterson, Engaging with God : a biblical theology of worship (Grand Rapids, MI : W.B. Eerdmans, 1993), 285.

[39] McClendon, Systematic theology, Vol.2 (Nashville : Abingdon Press, 2002), 385.

[40] 張永信:《崇拜:神學,實踐,更新》(香港:天道,2008,頁71

[41] Robert E. Webber,:《崇拜:認古識今》(香港:宣道,2000),頁110-111

[42] Robert E. Webber:《崇拜:認古識今》,115

[43] 楊慶球:杜倫斯(T. F. Torrance) 論基督神人二性的「道」 ,《中國神學研究院期刊》第49期,頁75

[44] Thomas F. Torrance, Theological science, 143.

[45] Thomas F. Torrance, Theology in reconstruction (Grand Rapids, MI : Eerdmans. 1965), 51-52.

[46] 楊慶球:杜倫斯(T.F. Torrance)的神學方法論,《華人神學期刊》第1冊第2期(198612月),頁88

[47] Thomas F. Torrance, Space, time and incarnation (Edinburgh : T&T Clark, 1997), 61.

[48] 楊慶球:杜倫斯(T.F. Torrance)的神學方法論,頁95

[49] 楊慶球:杜倫斯(T.F. Torrance)的神學方法論,頁93

[50] Thomas F. Torrance, Theological science (Edinburgh : T&T Clark Ltd., 1996), 143.

[51] Thomas F. Torrance, Space, time and incarnation, 174. 楊慶球:杜倫斯(T.F. Torrance)的神學方法論,頁99

[52] 楊慶球:杜倫斯(T.F. Torrance)的神學方法論,頁99

[53] 楊慶球:杜倫斯(T.F. Torrance)的神學方法論,頁100

[54] 楊慶球:杜倫斯(T.F. Torrance)的神學方法論,頁100-101

[55] Thomas F. Torrance《實在與福音神學》,72

[56] Thomas F. Torrance《實在與福音神學》,73

[57] Torrance, Thomas F. Theology in reconstruction, 52.

[58] Thomas F. Torrance《實在與福音神學》,73

[59] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,頁144

[60] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,頁147-148

[61] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,頁144

[62] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, p. 198.

[63] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, p. 107.

[64] Thomas F. Torrance, The Christian Doctrine of God, One Being Three Persons, p. 110-111.

[65] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,頁147-148

[66] 鄧紹光:始於三一上帝及終於三一上帝的崇拜,頁147-148

[67] 唐佑之:崇拜的三一信仰基礎,《使者》第386期(199511-12月),頁5

[68] Robert E. Webber:《崇拜:歷久常新》香港:基道,2009,頁29

[69] Robert E. Webber:《崇拜:歷久常新》,頁32

[70] Robert E. Webber:《崇拜:認古識今》,頁110-111

[71] Robert E. Webber:《崇拜:歷久常新》,頁32

[72] Robert E. Webber:《崇拜:歷久常新》,頁31

[73] Robert E. Webber:《崇拜:歷久常新》,頁32

[74] 紀哲生:<歌詞的創作>《 聖樂季刊》第63期(19847月),頁8-10

[75] 陳康:<歌詞與我何干: 如何檢視及評價詩歌() >《 時代論壇》第1102期(20081012日),頁13

 

Last Updated on Wednesday, 11 January 2012 20:55
 
謝婉婷:巴爾塔薩的「神學美學」與加西亞-里維拉的「藝術神學」 PDF Print E-mail
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Wednesday, 11 January 2012 20:27

巴爾塔薩的「神學美學」與加西亞-里維拉的「藝術神學」

 

推介人:郭鴻標博士

作者:謝婉婷

 

 

一、 引言:

神學的美學是相當近代的發展,隨著巴爾塔薩(Hans Urs von Balthasar)著作英文版的陸續出版,「神學美學」(theological aesthetics)這一概念已經得到了普遍的接受,而「審美的神學」(aesthetic theology)卻似乎仍然是一個有待界定的概念。[1]對於近年來非常活躍的拉丁西班牙族裔神學家加西亞-里維拉(Alejandro R. Garcia-Rivera)來說,僅僅討論「神學美學」的缺憾已經沒有意義,重要的是如何彌補其不足。[2]筆者將以兩位神學家的立場與思想進一步比較其差異及要點,並對應於過去在基督教歷史中曾發生的聖像破壞運動涉及的重點與決議,嘗試以兩位神學家的論點作出回應。

二、 近代神學家對「藝術」的看法:

藝術能夠賦予神學以雙眼來看清我們自己的一切向度,賦予神學以雙耳來聽見我們內在生命的聲音,賦予神學以工具以使人們能夠彼此交流,而以往的歷史也表明,藝術可以在上帝的那種統一性視域內最充分地實現它們的潛能。不過,迪倫貝格爾(John Dillenberger)將二十世紀具有代表性的神學家對藝術所作的回應劃分三種類型。

第一種類型,認為「在藝術與神學工作之間沒有任何關係」。

較為符合這範疇的神學家或許可以以巴特作為代表。巴特(Karl Barth)具有濃厚的音樂興趣,但是對待視覺藝術的態度卻是不同的,尤其是在崇拜處境中。他主張:「在一座為新教崇拜而設計的建築裡,根本沒有形象與象徵的位置。」若說藝術也許是人對上帝之經驗的一個接觸點,他則持深深地懷疑,並且為了上帝啟示自己的自由主動權而成為強烈的反聖像論者。[3]而我們可以說,巴特在藝術與神學工作之間沒有發現任何必要的、內在的或系統的關係,儘管上帝完全可以自由地通過藝術來為祂自己作出見證。[4]

第二種類行認為,「在那裡,可以表述出一種積極的啟示―有時是成功的,有時則是不成功的」。

奧托(Rudolf Otto)在他的著作《論神聖》中,認為關於令人敬畏者(the numinous)的宗教經驗與關於美的美學經驗之間的關係是超越比較的關係,他相信抽象者傳遞神秘經驗的能力,尤其在東方藝術中。另外,對田立克(Tillich)而言,視覺方面就像人的生活的一切方面一樣,屬於神學所關注的這個世界。不過他並沒有就宗教與藝術的關係提出一種系統的分析,乃是提供一系列獨立的研究,旨在揭示特定的人工製品(artifacts)能夠被解釋為終極關切之表達的那種方式。他認為藝術表明了一種精神情形的特徵是甚麼,它比科學與哲學更即時、更直接地做到這一點,因為它更少地負有客觀考慮的重負。[5] 除此之外也必須承認,神學著作所教的東西遠不及現代偉大藝術家的繪畫給予的啟示。[6]他認為藝術家們創造了富於揭示性的藝術品,觀賞它們便能進入我們不曾達到的現實水準。[7]在二十世紀所有的神學家中,田立克為藝術在神學工作中的作用確定了初始的議程。拉納(Karl Rahner)在他的一篇文章<神學與藝術>(Theology and the Arts)中提到:「在神學將這些藝術看作是它自己和它自己之生命的一個不可或缺的要素以前,在藝術成為神學本身的一個內在固有的要素以前,神學就不能說是完整的。」[8]拉納主張通過那非語言性的東西提供了那不能完全轉化成語言性的神學,他確保了藝術的必要地位。在他看來,藝術與神學―是不同的和相關連的―兩者都植根於人類的超越性本質之中。哈特(Ray Hart)繼續拓展此論點,他認為藝術應當受到與形而上學同等嚴肅的對待。

第三種類形是「藝術自身提供了一些範式與形象,而它們則影響了神學方法的本質。」這問題是複雜的,涉及藝術發揮神學功能的哪種方式,又涉及藝術與神學相關連的哪種模式。當中複雜的進路可見於巴爾塔薩的著述中,他的「神學美學」遠遠超越了只是指出藝術作品裡的基督教主題或者表明在神學與繪畫之間的類似之處。他嘗試將我們對客體(亦即那「美的事物」)的感知,置於與我們對上帝榮耀的感知的一種無法完成的、但卻是真實的關係之中。[9]

 

三、 巴爾塔薩(Hans Urs von Balthasar)的神學美學(theological aesthetics)

1. 「美」(beauty)本身

巴爾塔薩(Hans Urs von Balthasar,1905-1988)是瑞士天主教神學家、文化思想家,也是古

典學者,他建構了一種在神學上得到解讀的「美學」,他所稱的「美學」,純粹屬神學性的,不是流行的哲學性美學。[10] 在他之後,神學便開始使用這專有的名稱,用來定義一種研究神學的方法,引領我們重新重視美回復至它的起源一般。[11]

巴爾塔薩指出,「美學」按希臘文原意是指「感覺發現美的知識」,即一門關於美的視見或感覺之美的學問,與人的「觀」、「感」相聯繫。而神學美學涉及人與神聖之實在感覺上的觀照的關係,指明上帝的榮耀和光照,首先乃是人之感知的對象。「榮耀」乃是上帝顯現自己的神性之美。因此,神學美學是對上帝的榮耀被觀照的研究,它要探討人觀照上帝的榮耀所應具備的主體感知條件。若要了解上帝的性情和位格,就不能以一般的美學來了解,因為一般的美學必須接納醜和美。[12]

他認為一切的形態(形象/整體顯現)、面貌、世界---通稱為形格(form),而神學這世界亦然,因它本身也屬「道成肉身」可見的形狀,也有其本身的美的性質(aesthetic quality)[13]而美的發生,都必須寓於「有肉體的靈魂」、「有靈魂的肉體」裡,而且,都要受制於「道成肉身」這最高的型態。因此,神學美學建基在基督的形格上,即基督在拯救與審判中所顯露的美的形格,當中的結構有一部分是屬於神蹟性的,如罪得赦免、得以稱義及成為聖潔等;而此神蹟性的部分足以改變和聖化人存在的整體領域,並保證這屬靈的形格會達至極其美麗的地步。[14] 巴爾塔薩如此闡述:

基督形格是多樣的―人(耶穌)的肉體、聖經文體、教會肢體,彼此不是並排的,它們 有不同

的價值,彼此之間的關係千絲萬縷;教會將復活的基督顯露,在祂裡面受苦的拯救形格已成

了榮耀,並透過經文和教會的聖禮朗現出來。[15]

他反對過去幾十年,基督形格的研究單單在聖經的歷史性之下,他堅稱基督的形格猶如一件藝術品,只有進入作品本身並有相對於作品的主體內在性,才能對藝術品作客觀的理解和分析。

那麼要如何領會形格呢?他認為必須有審美知識,而不能只有理論和實踐的理解力。[16] 他認為美的元素必然與屬靈的領悟和一切屬靈的追尋相連,[17] 而美的立足點在於一個深層的向度,是介乎外露形格的表層與它所朗現的內容之間產生的屬靈距離。[18]因此視域的立足點乃是人的心靈,而我們必須訓練屬靈的視力,以至於心靈的眼睛敏銳,對於美的形態有所領悟。[19]而基督在世的使命是將父上帝最完美地表達出來,但是,上帝於我們是全然的奧秘,我們僅能根據祂的啟示方式來了解祂,並且根據神學美學的論點,啟示是絕對真與善;照樣,絕對的美如是。因此不能以人的邏輯、道德、實用學、美學來看待。[20]

巴爾塔薩認為,美必然是一個形格(form),而美之光則蘊藏於形格之內。[21]美只屬於「至高者」超越的品性,亦是祂基本要朗現的形狀(amnifestation)。而我們只能在信心亮光之下,領會上帝的完美形狀,也就是說,基督徒的生命中,需要主體性的信心與視域的結合,加上啟示的外在表達之形格,或客體性光芒的顯露。[22]

對巴爾塔薩而言,世界是上帝神聖美的反映;美就如真、善,都可以作為跳板,達至超越者那邊。他所謂「美感/審美/感性」(aesthetics)完全是屬於神學性的,即是說:人只能藉「信」而領受上帝的榮美()[23]

2. 與黑格爾的哲學美學對話

巴爾塔薩雖然想要強調神學美學不同於世俗意義上的美學,但是他重視基督的形格猶如一件藝術品的論調,仍反映出一般的美學帶給他的啟迪。在此藉由黑格爾的美學來與之相比對。

黑格爾(Hegel,1770-1831)的哲學頗艱深,他的要點是整全(The One)才是真實(real),部分(particular)不是實在。真理就是全體,任何部分都不是終極真理。[24]這些要點也顯現於他所寫的《美學》之中。黑格爾認為美的範圍分作自然美與藝術美,兩者之中真實的美乃藝術美,因為藝術美是觸及心靈的,是由心靈產生和再生的美,而自然美過於重視效用。[25]因此他是從藝術的角度來談美。

巴爾塔薩的神學美學與黑格爾的美學的進路有幾分相似。黑格爾倡藝術美的目的是期望提升「美的藝術」―這曾經被重視,如今卻被理性掩蓋―的地位;而巴爾塔薩則是表明,在歷史過程中,美學範疇為基督教神學家提供不少啟迪,他想建立一個在神學上得到解讀的美學。[26] 他認為,過往人們將古典時代和浪漫主義時代視為美學的時代,雖然美學開始有意義上的獨立性,但是卻走向唯美化,而歷史主義無視已出現在各個民族和各個時代中的美的形式,反而像博物館和藝術史那樣對美進行規整,從而使之喪失了一種新的考察方式。在基督教中,當祁克果(Kierkegaard)的《非此即彼》闖入本世紀新教和天主教思想之後,「啟示」與「美」一直是被分開的兩個標題,他形容,「當時一個嚴謹的門徒必須牢記的首要一點就是要將審美同倫理―宗教,特別是要同基督教的倫理―宗教區別開來。」[27] 但是也可以看到一些新教後裔努力把美和啟示協調起來。[28]而巴爾塔薩試圖恢復神學固有的美學維度,甚至可說是美學本質,此也證明在神學和美學之間的確存在著內在的聯繫,[29]只不過他所強調的不同是在於「神學美學」和「審美的神學」是兩個完全不同的概念。相較於黑格爾則是認為美的藝術非真正科學研究的對象,因為美的範圍非思考的範圍,其「自由的創造性」是科學無法研究的,因此他強調藝術不能歸入科學領域,[30]「只有在它和宗教與哲學處在同一境界,成為認識和表現神聖性,人類的最深刻的旨趣以及心靈得的最深層的真理的一種方式和手段時,藝術才算盡了它的最高職責」[31],在這段話當中也可以看出黑格爾認為的美學應該要和哲學及宗教的思維並進,相當於巴爾塔薩除了認為神學的美學認同在宗教範圍內對於真實之美的經驗外,[32]也認為近代神學中應該依靠哲學和以哲學為前提,甚至是神學院學生必須具備哲學基礎知識,而他也發現在這哲學基礎知識中,哲學美學並沒有一席之地。也因此他極力的彌補神學與美學失去聯繫的部分,而這重新恢復的方法就是,不去打破傳統,而是找出祈克果的兩大領域中的基本動機,進而據此努力去重新領會西方―基督教傳統中啟示和美自身之間的源始遭遇。[33]

 

四、 拉丁西班牙族裔神學家―加西亞-里維拉(Alejandro R. Garcia-Rivera)的藝術神學(theology of art)

1. 不同於巴爾塔薩的神學美學

巴爾塔薩的神學美學之特殊地位來自於兩個原因,一是他尋找並重獲那已失喪的基督教神學中的嚴格意義的美學,並且珍視這神聖之美;二是他認為這失喪的美學視野在這已瓦解的生命整全性上有它自己的本源,指在亞奎那之後的哲學方法發展及自然科學的興起。他的神學美學企圖革除一些他認為錯誤的地方。[34]主要的澄清在於「美」本身。

然而,在加西亞-里維拉的神學討論中,他認同巴爾塔薩對於美的重申及定義,但是,他也提出不足的部分,特別在於他的著作《美的共用》(The Community of the Beautiful)中不難看出他極力將「美」(Beauty)與「美的事物」(the beautiful)建構出連結也進一步說明兩者的差異。他認為神性美的部分需要被討論,但是美也需要被接收。[35]不過如何傳達或接收呢?他在著作《殘損的純真:勾畫一種藝術神學》(A Wounded Innocence:Sketches for a Theology of Art)中,更是嘗試解決這問題,因為他認為巴爾塔薩雖然使神學家們重新思考美的問題,但是卻沒有處理美的喪失的問題,而他主張,對於神學美學的討論不該只是抽象的概念,應該是人類生活的經驗,[36]也就是說藝術能夠教會神學如何去觀看、感受、領會和傳達美,並且藝術具有實踐性、參與性與轉換性,與人的現實生活密切相關。[37]

2. 美與美的事物、美感的形成和傳達

加西亞-里維拉認為神學美學是為了澄清「美」(Beauty)與「美的事物」(the beautiful)之間的關係,也就是美的神聖起源與經由人的內心所引發的美的事物之關係。神學美學也揭示出這今日被分割的「美」和「美的事物」之連結的重要性。他認為只有「美」藉著「美的事物」可以顯露出人們生活所擁有的價值跟尊貴,而且,若是沒有語言、美的經驗和美的事物,教會將難以找到一種關於信心的表達方式,更是少了人們對於尊崇它的信念,甚至對世界而言僅僅是一種奧秘。因此,神學美學提出更個人性且具體的理由使得「美」和「美的事物」之間的整體連結再度被討論。[38]他認同巴爾塔薩所言,神學美學將創造者與受造物之間不可測度的距離轉化為「可見的形式」(seeing the form),如此的顯現是上帝對世上無限的愛。[39]他進一步提出,人類最早關於美的活動應該是在聖禮中被呈現出來,在聖禮中接受神的榮光並且以讚美歸於祂,因此,禮拜的儀式可以被視為人類藝術中神學美學的類型。[40]

此外,關於創造力,他提出創造的藝術性使得神聖本質的奧秘藉由感知和理解力而顯得更加清晰。如此也可以證明創造力不屬於哲學的領域,而是神學所有;非知識論,而是神學美學的範疇。對他來說,創造力是一種推動的力量,也是人們心靈的活動,它使美可藉由人的心靈被重視、被欣賞,也使人的心靈能夠回應這美。[41]加西亞-里維拉在《殘損的純真:勾畫一種藝術神學》著作中展開一種藝術的神學,他宣稱藝術能夠幫助神學再現美的重要性,他為了呈現生活中的神學­而提出了七個關於藝術的神學的要點來反對陳舊的觀念。他最新的著作《上帝的花園》(The Garden of God)更是清楚的定義,「上帝、宗教和神學都與這顯明的知識相關―知覺、想像力和感受―也就是美的事物及藝術。」[42]、「因此,關於視覺的、音樂的和藝術的,這類超凡的語言,乃是一種更能認識上帝的真實之方法」。[43] 加西亞-里維拉甚至藉由德日進(Teilhard de Chardin)[44] 的立論來作為他的論點之延伸。德日進在他的神學宇宙論中提出,若教會想在今日的世界中恢復它為預言及末世的發聲,那麼它必須發展出一個令人們可以信服的宇宙論;加西亞-里維拉則提出,這宇宙論必然是一種美的向度,而美是聖靈在世界上顯而易見的工作,也就是前往上帝的花園之旅的一部分。[45]以此來加強美的重要性。

五、 檢視基督教歷史中的聖像破壞運動:

1. 反對的緣起及雙方的立場

導致東西方教會於一五四年分裂的重要成因除了「和子」的爭議之外,第二個就是由於「破壞聖像運動」(Iconoclastic Movement)之發生。此運動的意思是將所有作為崇拜之用的聖像聖相全部掃除。此次行動進行期間為七二六年至七八七年,由君士坦丁堡教會作主動。事緣七二九年希臘帝皇向教宗俄我略二世發出詔令,禁止在他統治下的教堂內懸掛致命者及天神的聖相或放置聖像。教宗強烈反對,認為帝皇無權在宗教事務上向教宗發出指令,並認為此舉違反了效忠於伯多祿的接位人。因此,此次事件又引出另一個東西方教會發生摩擦的例證。[46]

圖像只不過是基督與聖徒的像,在敬拜中作為集中注意力,默想和禱告的焦點。在東正教的敬拜與靈修時,這些圖像扮演重要無比的「天堂窗口」的角色,忠心的信徒以圖樣作為他們向三位一體的神與聖徒禱告的接觸點。事實上,東正教與羅馬天主教的神學家,從未將圖像當作偶像,圖像從未曾受過敬拜。[47] 並且,在東方,早在第六世紀的時後,他們就把圖像當作「文盲的課本」。他們認為,這些圖像的教導與提醒功能,對於無法閱讀聖經與基督教書籍的人重要無比。不過,圖像的發展也漸漸使得一些教會與國家領袖,惟恐此類的習俗會失控,其中就有一位皇帝,利奧三世(717),下令將整個帝國的圖像都除掉。其後的衝突蔓延了幾十年,主要的衝突在於,反圖像者表示,基督的像違反聖經禁止製作與敬拜偶像的禁令。在八世紀有一段時間反圖像者當權執政,因此整個東方帝國教會裡的圖像都被銷毀,並且有許多圖像的辯護者,名稱愛圖像者(iconophiles)受到迫害。[48]

2. 重要人物與其所持立場,此爭議之最後決議

此事件中正統的英雄是大馬色的約翰,又名「大馬色人」。他在整個拜占庭帝國裡,為辯護聖像作精彩的演說,這些演說,發展成名為《反駁聖像者》(Discourses Against the Iconoclasts)的著作。約翰主張,在真實敬拜一個人或物件與只是尊敬之間,作一個微妙但很重要的區別,繼續為在敬拜中使用圖像辯護。[49]

西元七八七年東正教使用圖像的傳統得到權威,宣告聖像或圖像,不僅不應該受到拒絕,而且還應該在基督教的敬拜中使用。[50]

 

3. 與巴爾塔薩及加西亞-里維拉之觀點對照

在這歷史的脈絡及神學的發展中,我們看見一種不可抑制的美,那本質的美藉著藝術發展得更加豐富。不論是巴爾塔薩一心想恢復的神聖之美,或是加西亞-里維拉所補充的藝術之美作為認識上帝的橋樑,我們都可以認定,聖像的發展或是其他藝術的創作,只要是作為敬拜或回應神的愛之用途,都可以稱為美。聖像的破壞其實並非無意義的非理性作為,在神學的思辨當中,很多時候神學家們都小心謹慎的處理惟恐過猶不及的思想論述。《聖痕》的作者提出,破壞聖像運動最終被西方人否定和拒絕,而這圍繞著偶像崇拜問題所進行的神學、哲學和美學思考,以及相應出現的一些文化現象和藝術實踐,對於西方藝術和西方文化產生了巨大和深遠的影響。[51] 巴爾塔薩認為,破壞聖像運動是一種對神學面對美學時的一種提醒跟校正,它發揮的作用甚至今日在教堂建築藝術和教會藝術中仍存在。不過,不可否認的是,這也只能作為提醒在理論上和實踐上抱持高度的警惕,以保障啟示的超驗之美不會落入內心世界的自然之美。[52]

 

六、 結論

迪倫貝格爾(John Dillenberger)將二十世紀具有代表性的神學家對藝術所作的回應劃分三種類型當中,巴爾塔薩是第三類,而筆者認為加西亞-里維拉這新興的神學家,則應屬於連結第二及第三類的神學家。因為他將巴爾塔薩那複雜的神學美學所提出的,關於美與美的事物之分別,及美的形格為何,都加以闡釋,他個人也清楚的主張美在神學中的定義,除此之外,他更將世界的真實處境考量至此神學反省中。基督教世界各種的藝術表現,我們都肯定必須是回應那神聖之美,但是,不論是聖禮的過程或是藝術家的創造,究竟怎麼樣被詮釋仍然是一件難以處理的課題,但是加西亞-里維拉嘗試在此範疇中定義及探討美的本質,及啟示與藝術的關連性,值得我們也參與其中。

筆者認為藝術與神學不能「非此即彼」,正如神學與歷史息息相關,各樣上帝所創造的科學都有其目的及意義,雖然不能將之畫上等號,卻也不該視之為多餘。藝術使人們更加體會神的屬性及榮耀,美的本源來自神是不容置疑的,當思想上賦予美學在神學上的定義,必然需要在行為表現上加以實踐,否則也是枉然。

書目

  1. Noll,Mark.《轉捩點-基督教會歷史里程碑》。Petaluma,CA:美國中信出版社,2002。頁141-151
  2. 巴爾塔薩著,劉小楓譯。《神學美學導論》。香港:三聯,1998
  3. 何崇謙:<美的超越:巴塔薩的神學美學>,《山道期刊》第二十期(200712),頁5
  4. 耿幼壯。《聖痕》。台北:台灣基督教文藝出版,2009
  5. 黑格爾著朱孟實譯。《美學一》。台北:里仁書局,1981
  6. 奧爾森著,吳瑞城等譯。《神學的故事》。台北:校園,2002,頁355-358
  7. 愛德爾‧塞爾著,衣俊卿譯。《現代藝術的宗教風格》。台北:桂冠圖書公司,1995
  8. 楊慶球著。《二十世紀神學選讀》。香港:天道,2010,頁6
  9. 福特編,董江陽等譯。《現代神學家》。香港:道風書社,2005
  10. Goosen著,李尚義譯。《合一中的教會》。台北:光啟,1996,頁57
  11. Stephen, Wigley.Balthasar’s Trilogy.London;New York:Continuum,c2010,26.
  12. Warner, Keith Douglass. “GARDEN of God: A Theological Cosmology,”Theological Studies, Dec2010, Vol. 71 Issue 4, p1003-1003, 2/3p.
  13. Alex,Garcia-Rivera.The community of the beautiful : a theological aesthetics. Collegeville, Minn. : Liturgical Press, c1999.
  14. Alex,Garcia-Rivera. The garden of God : a theological cosmology. Minneapolis : Fortress Press, c2009.
  15. Hans Urs von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord:A Theological Aesthetics,vol.1,trans. Erasmo Leiva-Merikakis(Edinburgh: T&T Clark,1982).
  16. Hans Urs von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord:A Theological Aesthetics,vol.4,trans. Erasmo Leiva-Merikakis(Edinburgh: T&T Clark,1982).
  17. Garcia-Rivera, Alejandro; Graves, Mark; Neumann, Carl. “Zygon: Journal of Religion & Science”, BEAUTY IN THE LIVING WORLD, Jun2009, Vol. 44 Issue 2, p243-263, 21p, 2 Diagrams; DOI: 10.1111/j.1467-9744.2009.00999.x


[1] 耿幼壯著:《聖痕》(台北:台灣基督教文藝出版社,2009),頁17

[2] 耿幼壯著:《聖痕》,頁19

[3] 福特編,董江陽等譯:《現代神學家》(香港:道風書社,2005),頁673

[4] 福特編,董江陽等譯:《現代神學家》,頁674

[5] 福特編,董江陽等譯:《現代神學家》,頁674

[6] 愛德爾塞爾著,衣俊卿譯:《現代藝術的宗教風格》(台北:桂冠圖書公司,1995),頁258

[7] 愛德爾塞爾著,衣俊卿譯:《現代藝術的宗教風格》,頁259

[8] 福特編,董江陽等譯:《現代神學家》,頁675

[9] 福特編,董江陽等譯:《現代神學家》,頁677

[10] 何崇謙<美的超越巴塔薩的神學美學>《山道期刊》第二十期(200712),頁5

[11] Alejandro Garcia-Rivera.The Garden of God . Minneapolis : Fortress Press, c2009 ,47.

[12] Hans Urs von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord:A Theological Aesthetics,vol.1,trans. Erasmo Leiva-Merikakis

(Edinburgh: T&T Clark,1982-1991),460.

[13] 何崇謙<美的超越巴塔薩的神學美學>,頁6

[14] Von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord,vol.1,28.

[15] Von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord,vol.1,531.

[16] Von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord,vol.1,152.

[17] Von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord,vol.1,153.

[18] Von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord,vol.1,152.

[19] Von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord,vol.1,23.

[20] Von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord,vol.1,607.

[21] Von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord,vol.1,151.

[22] Von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord,vol.1,473-475.

[23]何崇謙<美的超越巴塔薩的神學美學>,頁16

[24] 楊慶球著:《二十世紀神學選讀》(香港:天道,2010),頁6

[25] 黑格爾著,朱孟實譯:《美學》(台北:里仁書局,1981),頁5-6

[26] 福特編,董江陽等譯:《現代神學家》,頁677

[27] 巴爾塔薩著,曹衛東等譯:《神學美學導論》(香港:三聯書店,1998),頁1

[28] 包括魏塞(Weisse)、菲希特(I.H.Fichte)、烏爾里克(H.Ulrici)、赫爾曼(C.Hermann)以及百科全書式的人物卡雷

(M.Carriere)

[29] 耿幼壯著:《聖痕》,頁18

[30]黑格爾著,朱孟實譯:《美學》,頁8-9

[31]黑格爾著,朱孟實譯:《美學》,頁11

[32] Hans Urs von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord:A Theological Aesthetics,vol.4,trans. Erasmo Leiva-Merikakis

(Edinburgh: T&T Clark,1982),22.

[33]巴爾塔薩著,曹衛東等譯:《神學美學導論》,頁5

[34] Stephen, Wigley.Balthasar’s Trilogy.London;New York:Continuum,c2010,26.

[35] Alejandro Garcia-Rivera.The Community of the Beautiful. Collegeville, Minn. : Liturgical Press, c1999,10.

[36] Alejandro Garcia-Rivera.The Community of the Beautiful,viii.

[37] 耿幼壯著:《聖痕》,頁20

[38] Alejandro Garcia-Rivera.The Community of the Beautiful,11.

[39] Von Balthasar,The Glory of the Lord,vol.1,462.

[40] Alejandro Garcia-Rivera.The Community of the Beautiful,17-18.

[41] Alejandro Garcia-Rivera.The Community of the Beautiful,24.

[42] Alejandro Garcia-Rivera.The Garden of God ,47.

[43] Alejandro Garcia-Rivera.The Garden of God ,48.

[44] 德日進(Teilhard de Chardin)1881-1955,法國哲學家,神學家,古生物家。在中國工作多年,是舊石器時

代考古學的開拓者和奠基人之一。

[45] Alejandro Garcia-Rivera.The Garden of God ,52.

[46] Goosen著,李尚義譯:《合一中的教會》(台北:光啟,1996),頁57

[47] 奧爾森著,吳瑞城等譯:《神學的故事》(台北:校園,2002),頁355

[48] 奧爾森著,吳瑞城等譯:《神學的故事》,頁356

[49] 奧爾森著,吳瑞城等譯:《神學的故事》,頁357

[50] 奧爾森著,吳瑞城等譯:《神學的故事》,頁355

 

[51]耿幼壯著:《聖痕》,頁29

[52]巴爾塔薩著,曹衛東等譯:《神學美學導論》,頁78-79

 

 

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