Deutsch

Main Menu

Globale Christenheit




Designed by:
SiteGround web hosting Joomla Templates
Home Speziale Themen Erlösungslehre Yim Chak Wai: Thomas Torrance’s theology: from incarnation to redemption
Yim Chak Wai: Thomas Torrance’s theology: from incarnation to redemption PDF Drucken E-Mail
Geschrieben von: Publisher   
Donnerstag, den 28. Juli 2016 um 16:54 Uhr

Thomas Torrance’s theology: from incarnation to redemption

Referee: Dr. Benedict Kwok

Anthor: Yim Chak Wai

1.Background

As the problems and conflicts in the world are getting intensified, people pledged to find the solutions in spiritual, social and political aspects. Incarnation, redemption and atonement are sometimes used as religious slogan to advocate for different socio-political stance, while the essence of incarnation are being overlooked. For instance, in modern protestant theology, Jesus is viewed as a kind of moral, religious leader and teacher who exerts a powerful and transforming influence on humanity. Therefore, Christ’s death on the cross is the model of suffering love or solidarity in the struggle for justice.[1]

This inspires the writer to reflect on the deeper implication of Jesus’ s incarnation, redemption and atonement. The study below will explore the interwoven concepts mentioned above in an increasingly level up perspective, from revelation, sharing of human experience, wonderful exchange to hypostatic union, internal relations and reconciliation in view of time and space.

Torrance’s theological approach involves digging into the essential connections embodied in the Christ’s atoning incarnational redemption itself, while the incarnation and the atonement are intimately interconnected throughout the earthly life, death, resurrection and ascension of Jesus Christ. [2] Incarnation refers to a continuous vicarious sacrifice, that his incarnate life and his redeeming activity are completely interwoven in a way that his Persons, his Word, and his Act are one and undivided.[3] It also means taking an intensely personal journey into the reality and character of the love of the Triune God manifested in the cross.[4]

2. Revelation and Incarnation

2.1 Internal relations

Without Christ’s atoning reconciliation transforming our lives and our minds, we cannot know God in a personal manner.[5] Jesus Christ is fully God and wholly human in one person, with his divine and human activity flow from his one person, so that the two natures are deeply united in the incarnation. Everything Jesus accomplishes for us in atoning reconciliation takes place inside Christ.[6]

Therefore, atoning sacrifice is understood in terms of internal relations between Christ and human. Otherwise incarnation becomes instrumental, referring to Christ’s suffering and death as an external judicial transaction, to transfer penalty for sin, judgement and wrath of God from us to Jesus Christ who dies fulfilling the just penalty against those who transgress God’s laws. [7]

Christ does not mediate a revelation or reconciliation that is other than what he is, as though he is only the agent or instrument of that mediation to mankind. The content and the reality of the mediation are constituted in his own incarnate person. It is not that Jesus Christ is only the bearer of God’s word, for he himself is the truth of God. The truth of God is addressed to us in the form of his personal being. [8]

2.2 Dynamic Sharing of human experience

The incarnation is inherently atoning and the atonement is intrinsically incarnational. It means that Jesus Christ condemns sin in our sinful humanity and overcomes the estrangement, sin, built and death entrenched in our humanity through an atoning and transforming relation between the divine and the human natures. [9] Yet it does not mean that Jesus Christ sinned himself or became contaminated by our corrupt and fallen condition. As Torrance emphasised that the hypostatic union is a reconciling union. [10]

Jesus Christ refused to be alone or without us. In turn, he insisted to penetrate into human’s hearts which are occupied by sin and violence in order to take it all upon himself and to save us.[11]

He endured fearful temptations and the forces of darkness. He wept beside the grace of a loved one, had a prostitute kiss his feet and wet them with her tears. He headed with his heavenly Father in the garden to let the cup of suffering pass from him.[12]

In this sharing of human experiences, atoning reconciliation takes a dynamic form. The fearful temptations, the forces of the darkness, the sin and violence are real historical structures which Jesus overcame with a life of purity and faithfulness.[13]

All of our human experiences are shared by the incarnate saviour. Jesus Christ did not come as an instrument to merely remove our sins and violence. Rather, he came to us, stood with us from where we were. Jesus’ atonement cannot be accomplished without staying together and sharing every bits of human’s experience. The incarnation involves a dynamic sharing of experiences.

2.3 Into Humiliation and self-sacrifice

Torrance mentioned that by completely identifying himself with us, Jesus Christ took the contradiction of our sin upon him, entered into the conflict between us and God and took that conflict upon himself. Jesus Christ carried it in his own life and heart. He judged our sin in himself and reconciled us to God. [14] He identified himself with us the distance from the father by penetrating into the abyss that divides us from God, stood in the gap between God’s wrath and human guilt. His offering as God and man that was righteous and true, destroyed the barrier and effected Reconciliation between God and humanity. [15]

Torrance expressed that there was degradation of oneself in this exchange. Jesus Christ degraded himself to participate in our alienated life that we might participate in the life of the son of God. [16]In taking up our place, we might have his place. In becoming what we are, we might become what he is. This involves the humiliation and self-sacrifice of the incarnate Son in life and death, in exchange for the transformation and the exaltation of our humanity which is lifted up in and through Christ.[17]

2.4 Recreation of relationship

In assuming our disobedient humanity in rebellion against God, Christ converted it back to a filial relation to God in love, obedience, holiness, trust and praise. The Word of God incarnate in Jesus Christ delivered humanity from sin and alienation. Furthermore, it realises perfect humanity on the earth, offering God the true response to God on our behalf and in our place, which we cannot make for ourselves. This results in a recreation of humanity’s relation to God.[18]

The blessed exchange involved the entire relationship between Jesus Christ and ourselves, between his obedience and our disobedience, his holiness and our sin, his life and our death, his strength and our weakness, his wisdom and our ignorance, his joy and our misery. [19] Torrance mentioned that the atoning exchange involved his grace and our poverty, his light and our darkness, his peace and our dispeace, his immortality and our mortality. [20]

This reveals that Jesus Christ not only took up our place, endure the conflict but he assumed our sin and conflict upon himself, in exchange for a transformation in our humanity. This exchange involves humiliation and sacrifice, which results in a reconciliation of human’s relationship with God.

3. Divine and Human Nature

In Nicene theologians’ view, the son of God has not assumed our actual fallen humanity, but a perfect and sinless humanity different from our own. A similar tendency was found in Roman catholic theology, which understood the atonement in external juridical categories. Original sin is cured through the ‘healing medicine’ of transferable grace merited by Christ and dispensed by the church through the sacraments. [21]

3.1 Nature of Hypostatic union

Torrance rejects any view that suggests the incarnation was apparent but not real, or that Christ was only a godly man. Torrance goes on from the homoousian, then he expressed the doctrine of the hypostatic union, which refers to Christ as the one in whom divine and human natures are united in his one person. He comments that Christian theology has not given enough thought on this aspect since the early centuries. [22]

Since the relation of the Father to the Son falls within the communion and union between the persons of the Trinity in the being of God, the incarnation of the Son of God in our human creature existence takes the form of hypostatic union. This means that the unique divine nature is fully united with a truly human nature in Christ’s one person.[23]

Jesus Christ embraces both sides of the mediating relationship . He is God of the nature of God, the man of the nature of man, in one and the same person. He is not two realities, a divine and a human, joined or combined together, but on reality who confronts us as he who is both God and man. [24] In other words, God really become man. JC is not just man participating in God. Instead he is himself essential Deity. [25]

The incarnation was not the bringing into being of a created intermediary between God and man. It means the incarnation of God in such a way that in Jesus Christ he is both God and man in the fullest and most proper sense. [26] Incarnation is real becoming on the part of God, in which God comes as man and acts as man. We are the reason for the incarnation. From beginning to end God the Son acts among us in a human way, ‘within the measures of our humanity’ as Cyril of Alexandria expressed it.[27]

3.2 Full human activity

The mediation of Jesus Christ involves a twofold movement, from God to humanity and from humanity to God. [28] In all His earthly historical human activity, Christ embodies the activity and presence of God, this act of God includes the fully human activity of Jesus Christ, who is one with us in human being and nature. God who acts personally and immediately as a human being and therefore in a simultaneously divine and human manner.[29]

The word of God did not just descend upon JC as upon one of the prophets. It is important to recognize that this understanding gives no place to a dualist conception of man. Rather, it means the whole man who is body of his soul and soul of his body, not a body without soul or mind. [30]He is not interpreted just as the appearance of God in a human form or in the mode of a human life. Jesus Christ  is whole God and wholly man at the same time, but he is also the son of God who comes to us as man.[31]

Therefore the hypostatic union entails dynamic and ontological interrelations with God throughout the life of Christ from birth through life, death and resurrection. [32]

3.3 Corrupted humanity

3.3.1 Spiritual nature

Divine salvation and reconciliation had to do with human beings, not only in the corruption of their physical nature, but in the their spiritual nature. Men become alienated and enemies with God in their minds so that they turned the very truth of God into a lie, resulting in an alienated spiritual nautre. The son of God judged sin within that very nature, so to redeem man from his hostile mind. This is the reason why the son of God was sent in the concrete form of our own sinful nature. [33]

3.3.2 Sanctification of human life

In Matthew, Jesus was incorporated unto a long line of sinners, who committed numerous wicked deeds that the Bible does not cover up. It shows that Jesus was willing to make the generations of humanity his very own, summing up in himself our sinful stock. Thus atoning reconciliation began to be actualised with the conception and birth of Jesus Christ of the virgin Mary, when he identified himself with our fallen and estranged humanity.[34]

He withstood the strain of human sin and God’s judgement upon it, especially on the cross. He sanctified every phase of human life within the personal union of his divine nature and our sinful human nature in the oneness of his person as our incarnate saviour.[35]

Far from sinning himself or being contaminated by what he appropriated from us, Christ triumphed over the forces of evil entrenched in our human existence, bringing his own holiness, his own perfect obedience, to bear upon it in such a way as to condemn sin in the flesh and to deliver us from its power. [36] The whole life of Jesus is a preparation and actualisation of the atoning reconciliation. For God took upon himself in the flesh in which we have sinned that by wearing our flesh he might forgive sins, a flesh which he shares with us by wearing it not by sinning in it. [37]

It can be seen that from beginning to end Jesus Christ acts in the fullest human way for our sake, not just in outer appearance of human form or a mode of human life but he is willing to linked himself up with our long history of sin.

3.4 Son of God

Cyril of Alexandria mentioned that if Christ who suffered for ur was only the organ of Deity, we have not been redeemed. [38]

The reason for being the only son who is eternally in God is to avoid constituting just a created and temporal centre ontologically external to God. Or else all relations between Jesus Christ and God could be constructed only in external moral terms, without any unifying centre in the Person of Christ who as God and man is the one mediator between God and man. [39] Then atoning sacrifice of Christ would only be understood in terms of some kind of superficial socio-moral or judicial transaction between and mankind. [40]

On the other way round, if Jesus Christ is the son of the father who is eternally in God, then atoning reconciliation must be understood as having taken place within the personal being of Jesus Christ as the one mediator between God and man. In this way, he saves within human’s ontological roots and actual condition of human creaturely existence. Then atonement an act of God done in his stead and on his behalf, which is considered as an act of God as man.[41]

3.5 Form of a servant

The son of God can come to the human world with a form of superior figure, yet he not only take the form of a many, but he chooses to take the form of a servant in the incarnation. He assumed our servile condition, our state under the control of sin. He humiliates himself in order to act for us and on our behalf. He choose to be what we actually exist by self-abasement. Torrance comments that the Pauline expression ‘form of a servant’ should be taken to mean, not some ‘likeness or resemblance’ assumed by Christ in his incarnation, but the actual form of existence which he took over from the ‘the lump of Adam’, it was a ‘real incarnation’. [42]

There is close interconnection between the notions of the servant and the priest. The servant form of Christ was identified to be essential to his priestly oneness. As a priest and servant, he could act on our behalf, in our place, and in our stead, before God the Father. His person and his action were one in nature. He was the one who offered for mankind, and also the one being offered. He was himself both the one offered and the one who offered for mankind.[43]

4. The ontological depths and beyonce

4.1 Theology from the West and early Church Fathers

There is a growing tendency in Western theology from the fifth century to reject the idea that Christ assumed our sinful, alienated and fallen humanity. The Western theology tends to believe that Christ assumed a neutral or perfect human nature from the Virgin Mary. This shifts our understanding towards salvation from beginning to end, which drifts apart incarnation and atonement, Christ’s person and work.[44]

At the very beginning of Christian theology, St Paul emphasised that incarnation is the coming of God to take upon himself our fallen human nature, our actual human existence laden with sin and guilt, our humanity diseased in mind and soul in its estrangement or alienation from the creator. [45]Morever, the understanding of the West conflicts with the basic principle of salvation found in many Church fathers.[46] While the doctrine of St Paul was found everywhere in the early church in the first give centuries. They emphasised that the whole man had to be assumed by Christ if the whole man was to be saved. That the unashamed is unhealed, or that what God has not taken up on Christ is not saved. [47]

Any part of our actual humanity that the Son of God has not taken upon himself in the incarnation is left untouched by the atoning reconciliation effected throughout Christs life, ministry, death, resurrection and ascension. [48] The significance of the doctrine is that God had laid hold the alienation of man in Jesus Christ in order to redeem it and effect reconciliation deep within the rational centre of human being. [49] If incarnation is not held to mean that Jesus Christ penetrated into our alienated fallen sinful human nature, then atoning and sanctifying reconciliation can be understood only in terms of external relations between JC and sinners. [50]

Redemption was not accomplished just by a downright fiat of God, nor by a mere divine ‘nod’, but by an intimate, personal movement of the son of God himself into the heart of human and into the inner recesses of the human mind. The purpose is to save us from within and from below, and to restore us to undamaged relations of being and mind with himself. [51] The redemption deep down involves the heart and mind of human in an intimate movement between God and man.

In this way, divine salvation does not take place in the ontological depths of human being. Reconciliation with God does not penetrate into the underlying structures of human existence. Then there would be no complete cleansing of the roots of the human conscience through the bond of Christ. In turn radical transformation or rebirth of human being in him could not be accomplished. And therefore the hope is not grounded in Christ. If Jesus Christ is proclaimed to mankind as a saviour or healer, it can be only as one who fulfils his ministry through external relations and means like a human doctor, a moralist or a social worker.[52]

This explains a significant reason for Jesus Christ to penetrate into the ontological depths of human existence and sinful humanity. From the above understanding, God intends not for a superficial, temporal salvation, but a real and transformative salvation for human, in the aspect of both heart and mind.

4.2 Beyond time and space

Apart from the ontological depths, Jesus Christ come to us beyond time and space. Torrance analysed that ‘the essential key was found in the relation of the homoousian to the creation , that is, in the fact that the Lord JC, who shares with us our creaturely existence in this world and is of one substance with the Father, is He through whom all things, including space and time, came to be’.

It is inadequate to view space and time as a container concept. As time and space is developed independently of the incarnation and outside of the interaction between God and creation in Jesus Christ. It reveals to us once again that through the concept of time and space, God did not just participate in human’s life, for God become human in Jesus Christ.[53]

On the other hand, incarnation does not mean that God is being restricted by time and space. For God, incarnation reaffirms the reality of time and space in the relationship between God and human.  Incarnation connects God and human in time and space. Since we are not able to abolish time and space, therefore we cannot abolish the relationship between the creature and the creator. As God cannot abolish time and space, likewise He cannot withdraw the incident of incarnation, or withdraw the love He has for the world during the creation. [54]

God loves the world with such great love. Out of this great love, He redeems the world and promises to take charge of the world. On the other hand, this great love is God’s nature. This great love is actualised in the humanity of Jesus and all of our humanity as well. [55] As Torrance mentioned, reconciliation through the life of Christ and reconciliation through the passion of Christ interpenetrate each other.[56]

Jesus Christ becomes a place where God and man can interact and communicate with one another. This happens at the level of physical existence. If God does not create such place in our creation and history, then the realistic connection between God and man, in terms of words and deeds is not possible. God is not in an ideal world, but He opens up a place in the world that we draw alienated to Him. God humiliates himself and entered into the physical existence of the world. The sole purpose is to deliver His infinite existence onto human. On the other round, His true existence in human  cannot be seen as separating from our physical existence. God humiliates himself in earthly historical setting. [57]

With the concept of time and space interwoven with incarnation and redemption, it can be seen that incarnation is out of God’s love, which is His nature. It further explains that incarnation and redemption are inseparable with God’s creation and earthly historical events.

4.3 Influences

4.3.1 Personalising human being

Jesus Christ is the personalising person, we are personalised persons. Far from depersonalising human being, or overriding the human person, the coming of Jesus Christ has the effect of personalising human being in a profounder way than ever before. [58]

In Jesus Christ, we have embodied in our humanity personalising person and personalised person in one and the same being. The personalised person is brought to its fullest reality. Therefore far from being emptied or overpowered by the divine Person, the human person is reinforced and upheld in its indissoluble oneness with the divine. [59] Our lost and damned humanity is redeemed, healed and sanctify in Jesus Christ. The broken state of human person being is brought within the redeeming, healing and sanctifying activity of God in Jesus Christ. [60]

4.3.2 Humanisation of human being

Our human personality is suffers from a deeply set schizoid condition, leading to insincerity and hypocrisy in us. [61] As a result, we became imprisoned in a self centred individualism which cuts us off from genuine relations with others, so that our relationship with other persons are twisted. Instead of becoming insincere and hypocritical, Jesus Christ healed the ontological split in human being through the hypostatic and atoning union mentioned above. He embodied within our schizoid and split condition, reintegration of image and reality in and through a human life of perfect sincerity, honesty and integrity are accomplished in Jesus Christ. [62]

The human heart is so desperately wicked that it takes advantages between what we are and what we ought to be in order to be. This can be revealed in patterns and structures of human’s moral behaviour.  Under the moral principle of what is god and right, the human heart masks or even fortifies its evil intentions, resulting in self deception of our human heart and the depravity of our self. This leads to desire of justifying ourselves before God and our neighbours by a formal, impersonal fulfilment of the divine law. On the other hand, we remain untouched in ourselves and uncommitted in our own persons. The process of dehumanisation is being fostered in the depths of our beings and trapping ourselves inescapably in insincere and hypocritical personalities.[63]

4.3.3 Reconciliation

Jesus Christ achieved for us the reconciliation throughout the whole course of his obedience as the servant son and supremely in his atoning sacrifice on the cross. he penetrated to the utmost extremist of ourselves alienating flight from God where we trapped in death, and turned everything round so that our of the fearful depths of our darkness and dereliction we may cry with him.[64]

The answer of the father: ‘Thou art my beloved son in whom I am well pleased’. Once again, the life of Jesus Christ is not an answer to God which he has given to us through some kind of transaction external to us or over our heads, but rather one which he has made to issue out of the depths of our human being and life as our own.[65]

This is not an answer in word only but in deed. This is a final answer to God actualised in the flesh and blood of our human existence and behaviour and which remains eternally valid. Jesus Christ is our human response to God. Therefore we appear before God and are accepted by him as those who are inseparably united to Jesus Christ our great High Priest in his eternal self-presentation to the father. [66]

It is by relationship that reconciliation can be achieved and only by relationship that our dehumanisation is  being demolished in Jesus Christ. Reconciliation of relationship is achieved through deed band not merely words.

5. Implications to Christian life and community

5.1  Morality

Much of the western culture has been christianised. The phenomenon of Christendom is produced. It is a tragedy for church to identify Christianity with Christendom. They think that ‘to be good’ equals completely to ‘to be a christian’. Christina life is hardly distinguishable from good citizenship or philanthropy or humanitarianism. Therefore the supernatural element in the church, the kingdom of God, has been naturalised. This leads to the degrading of Christian message to ideals of civilisation. [67]

If Jesus Christ is only morally related to God himself, then the best he can be is a kind of moral leader. Through his own example in love and righteousness, he guides us to a better moral relationship with God. In this way, the atoning sacrifice made by Jesus Christ on the cross can be understood only in terms of an external moral relationship, as a demonstration of the love of God or as some kind of judicial transaction between God and Jesus.[68]

The doctrines of the church and the christian life, can only be understood in terms of moral relations. The church becomes a gathering place for people on moral grounds or social ethical issues. The church then degraded to a very human society formed out of individuals who are externally connected with each other through common ideals and a common way of life.[69]

As from the study above, Jesus Christ is not an external instrument aiming to reconcile our relationship with God. He is internally connected with the degraded humanity and into the depths of our sinful nature. It is reflected that incarnation, atonement and redemption are far more than moral judgment form God.

5.2 Relationality

In Romans 5:8-11, reconciliation is related to personal relationship between God and man. It is a two sided relationship, that the side of man is subordinated to the side of God. God renews the relation between himself and humanity. The human part is the receiver of reconciliation, as Paul in speaks of ‘receiving atonement or reconciliation’. [70]

Reconciliation is then involved a changed relationship. Reconciliation emphasises on the new relation and the new humanity.[71] Torrance clarifies that reconciliation is not just the setting up or a relational son of peace that never existed before, but the restoration of a relationship of peace and love that had been destroyed. [72]

5.3 Humanity

Reconciliation is the ultimate fulfilment of God’s assumption of our humanity in the incarnation. [73] It is the restoration of men and women in Christ to fellowship with God, even their exaltation to be partakers of the divine nature, so that they live for ever in the overflow of the eternal life and love of God the father. [74] From this, restoration of humanity is inseparable from restoration of relationship.

Incarnational redemption involves not only forgiveness and freedom from bondage, but also new life in union with God. The end goal of the atonement is more than the restoration of relations between God and humanity. The end goal is ’union with God in and through Jesus Christ in whom our human nature is not only saved, healed and renewed but lifted up to participate in the very light, life and love of the Holy Trinity.’ [75]

5.4 Church and transformation

If atoning reconciliation between man and God is not external but internally related to Jesus Christ, then the church of Jesus Christ cannot be thought of as only externally related to him. Christ is not a figurative way of speaking of some external moral union between believing people and Jesus Christ, but an expression of the ontological reality of the church corporate with Christ himself, who not only mediates reconciliation between man and God but constitutes and embodies it in his own divine-human reality as mediator.[76]

In this way,  Church is not merely a society of individuals gathered together on moral grounds and externally connected with one another though common ethical ideas. Torrance emphasised that external organisation cannot effect the personalisation and humanisation of people in society. External organisation cannot achieve transformation of human social relationship. Torrance thinks that Church is a place for such personalisation, humanisation and transformation. Interpersonal relations are healed and restored in Jesus Christ. Moreover, through the humanising activity of Jesus Christ, the interrelations between human beings are constantly renewed and sustained.[77]

People are to be reconciled to one another in different social structures of their existence. In the same token, the church is a place for people to go through transformation and renewal of all human social structures. The ultimate aim for the transformation is a love-centred community, sustained by by the personalising and humanising presence of the Jesus Christ.[78]

Torrance’s theology acts as a great reminder that Church is not merely a place for social gatherings or ministry that are external to humanity. Rather it is a place where people can go deep into their humanity in Jesus Christ, in order to accomplish the renewal in personalisation and humanisation in Jesus Christ.

6. Conclusion

From the study above, the theology of Torrance emphasised the non-instrumental nature of Jesus Christ. He points out that internal relations, dynamic sharing of human experience by Christ, with Jesus Christ bearing the humiliation in the safe of recreation of relationship between God and man. This renews our understanding that incarnation is not simply an instrument to relieve God’s wrath and punishment. Rather, atonement, incarnation and redemption is an actual human experience by Christ.

Furthermore, incarnation, atonement and redemption is related to the nature of Jesus Christ, which is both divine and human in one person. It involves experiencing full human activity and stepping into the corrupted humanity. Jesus, with the identify of the son of God, takes the form of a servant, in incarnation.

The incarnational redemption is far more than the above. Jesus Christ penetrates into the ontological depths of human existence and sinful humanity. His incarnation and redemption are inter-connectedly inseparable with God’s creation and earthly historical events. The time and space concepts further amaze us that the incarnational redemption is out of God’s eternal love for man.  Out of all these arrangements in himself, Jesus Christ accomplished the personalisation, humanisation and reconciliation for human being.

This view of incarnational-redemption thus gives much implications to Christian life and community, in terms of morality, relationality, humanity and the role of church. Only with a detailed, in-depth search for meaning on incarnational- redemption, Christians can receive a more multi-dimensional understanding of Jesus Christ.

In respond to the doubts at the beginning of the study, Jesus Christ is not merely a figurative symbol, solution, strategy for social-political crisis. On the other hand, true restoration of humanity and reconciliation, which social-political arguments are aiming at, can only be achieved through Jesus Christ, who steps into human history, goes through humiliation, shares human experience upon himself with his both divine and human nature.

Reference List

Cassidy. James J.Thomas F. Torrances realistic soteriological objectivism and the elimination of

dualisms: union with Christ in current perspective.” Mid-America Journal of Theology 19 (2008):

165-194.

Colyer, Elmer M. The Promise of Trinitarian Theology : Theologians in Dialogue with T.F.

Torrance. Edited by Colyer. Elmer M. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001.

Colyer, Elmer M. How to Read T.F. Torrance : Understanding His Trinitarian & Scientific

Theology. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001.

Curves Andrew. Exploring Christology & Atonement : Conversations with John Mcleod Campbell,

H.R. Mackintosh and T.F. Torrance. Downers Grove, Ill.: IVP Academic, 2015.

Jack Bartlett., Rogers, and Donald K. McKim, The Authority and Interpretation of the Bible : An

Historical Approach. (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1979), 418.

Torrance Thomas F., and Jock Stein. Gospel, Church, and Ministry. Edited by Jock Stein. Vol.1, Thomas F. Torrance Collected Studies, Or.: Pickwick Publications, 2012.

Torrance, Thomas F. The Mediation of Christ. Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992.

Torrance Thomas F. The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic

Church. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988.

Torrance, Thomas F. and Robert Walker T. Atonement : The Person and Work of Christ. Edited by

Walker. T. Robert. Colorado Springs : Downers Grove, Ill.: Paternoster ; IVP Academic, 2009.

杜倫斯著。陳群英譯。楊慶球審譯:《.空與道成肉身》。二十世紀神學叢書 2。香港:

督教文藝出版社,2008

楊慶球著。《實在論神學 : 托倫斯的神學思想研究》 漢語基督教文化研究所叢刊 44。香

港:道風書社2014

 



[1] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 61-62.

[2] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 35.

[3] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 37.

[4] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 34.

[5] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 34.

[6] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 35.

[7] Elmer M. Colyer, How to Read T.F. Torrance : Understanding His Trinitarian & Scientific Theology. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001), 87.

[8] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 56-57.

[9] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 36.

[10] Elmer M. Colyer, How to Read T.F. Torrance : Understanding His Trinitarian & Scientific Theology. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001), 85.

[11] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 62.

[12] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 36.

[13] Elmer M. Colyer, How to Read T.F. Torrance : Understanding His Trinitarian & Scientific Theology. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001), 85.

[14] Thomas F. Torrance, and Walker T. Robert, Atonement : The Person and Work of Christ, ed. T. Walker. Robert. (Colorado Springs : Downers Grove, Ill.: Paternoster ; IVP Academic, 2009), 150.

[15] Thomas F. Torrance, and Walker T. Robert, Atonement : The Person and Work of Christ, ed. T. Walker. Robert. (Colorado Springs : Downers Grove, Ill.: Paternoster ; IVP Academic, 2009), 152.

[16] Thomas F. Torrance, and Walker T. Robert, Atonement : The Person and Work of Christ, ed. T. Walker. Robert. (Colorado Springs : Downers Grove, Ill.: Paternoster ; IVP Academic, 2009), 152.

[17] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 51.

[18] Elmer M. Colyer, How to Read T.F. Torrance : Understanding His Trinitarian & Scientific Theology. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001), 110.

[19] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 51.

[20] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 181.

[21] Elmer M. Colyer, How to Read T.F. Torrance : Understanding His Trinitarian & Scientific Theology. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001), 86-87.

[22] Elmer M. Colyer, The Promise of Trinitarian Theology : Theologians in Dialogue with T.F. Torrance, ed. Elmer M. Colyer. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001), 58.

[23] Elmer M. Colyer, How to Read T.F. Torrance : Understanding His Trinitarian & Scientific Theology. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001), 82.

[24] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 56.

[25] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 149.

[26] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 150.

[27] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 150.

[28] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 149.

[29] Elmer M. Colyer, How to Read T.F. Torrance : Understanding His Trinitarian & Scientific Theology. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001), 83.

[30] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 150.

[31] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 56.

[32] Elmer M. Colyer, How to Read T.F. Torrance : Understanding His Trinitarian & Scientific Theology. (Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 2001), 83-84.

[33] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 40.

[34] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 41.

[35] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 36.

[36] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 161.

[37] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 162.

[38] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 159.

[39] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 158.

[40] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 158.

[41] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 159.

[42] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 153.

[43] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 154.

[44] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 39.

[45] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 39.

[46] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 39.

[47] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 39.

[48] Gerrit Scott, Dawson, An Introduction to Torrance Theology : Discovering the Incarnate Saviour. (New York: T & T Clark, 2007), 39.

[49] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 39.

[50] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 40.

[51] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 188.

[52] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 62.

[53] Elmer M. Colyer, The Promise of Trinitarian Theology : Theologians in Dialogue with T.F. Torrance, ed. Elmer M. Colyer. (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2001), 57.

[54] 杜倫斯著,陳群英譯,楊慶球審譯:《.空與道成肉身》,二十世紀神學叢書 2香港: 基督教文藝出版社,2008),頁90

[55] 杜倫斯著,陳群英譯,楊慶球審譯:《.空與道成肉身》,二十世紀神學叢書 2香港: 基督教文藝出版社,2008),頁90

[56] Thomas F. Torrance, The Trinitarian Faith : The Evangelical Theology of the Ancient Catholic Church. (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1988), 166-168.

[57] 杜倫斯著,陳群英譯,楊慶球審譯:《.空與道成肉身》,二十世紀神學叢書 2香港: 基督教文藝出版社,2008),頁102

[58] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 68.

[59] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 68.

[60] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 68.

[61] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 68.

[62] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 68.

[63] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 71.

[64] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 79.

[65] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 80.

[66] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 80.

[67] Thomas F. Torrance, and Stein Jock, Gospel, Church, and Ministry, ed. Stein Jock. ; vol.1, Thomas F. Torrance Collected Studies, (Or.: Pickwick Publications, 2012), 75.

[68] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 61.

[69] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 61.

[70] Thomas F. Torrance, and Walker T. Robert, Atonement : The Person and Work of Christ, ed. T. Walker. Robert. (Colorado Springs : Downers Grove, Ill.: Paternoster ; IVP Academic, 2009), 142.

[71] Thomas F. Torrance, and Walker T. Robert, Atonement : The Person and Work of Christ, ed. T. Walker. Robert. (Colorado Springs : Downers Grove, Ill.: Paternoster ; IVP Academic, 2009), 142.

[72] Thomas F. Torrance, and Walker T. Robert, Atonement : The Person and Work of Christ, ed. T. Walker. Robert. (Colorado Springs : Downers Grove, Ill.: Paternoster ; IVP Academic, 2009), 144.

[73] Thomas F. Torrance, and Walker T. Robert, Atonement : The Person and Work of Christ, ed. T. Walker. Robert. (Colorado Springs : Downers Grove, Ill.: Paternoster ; IVP Academic, 2009), 150.

[74] Thomas F. Torrance, and Walker T. Robert, Atonement : The Person and Work of Christ, ed. T. Walker. Robert. (Colorado Springs : Downers Grove, Ill.: Paternoster ; IVP Academic, 2009), 150.

[75] James J. Cassidy, “Thomas F. Torrance’s realistic soteriological objectivism and the elimination of dualisms: union with Christ in current perspective,” Mid-America Journal of Theology 19 (2008): 168.

[76] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 67.

[77] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 71.

[78] Thomas F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ. (Edinburgh: T & T Clark, 1992), 72.

 
Globale Christenheit und Kontextuelle theologische Reflexion, Powered by Joomla! | Web Hosting by SiteGround