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Mittwoch, den 30. Juni 2010 um 11:27 Uhr

Trinity and Christian Life

Referee: Dr. Benedict Kwok
Author: Charlotte Dorey Lui

I have been a believer for so long but I did not really take the time to understand the different roles of the Triune God, its meaning and its relation to my life. I just relied on my basic knowledge of God from school and church by knowing the existence of God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit but did not bother to understand it more in depth. Due to some exposure on the topic of Trinity lately, I decided to read more about it and write “Understanding The Relation of The Trinity With Our Christian Lives Makes Us Fruitful”. To help me understand, I then came up with the structure below.

  1. Definition of the Trinity.

  1. How is it described in the Bible?

The literal word Trinity (according to, it means the union of three persons in one Godhead; a group of three; the state of being threefold or triple) or Triune (, it means three in one) God cannot be found in the entire Bible but we can locate verses in the New Testament that mentions the Three Persons together as a representation of God: Paul and Timothy sent their greetings with the grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the fellowship of the Holy Spirit (2 Corinthians 13:14), Jesus asked his disciples to go, make disciples and baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit (Matthew 28:19), Jude encouraged his friends to pray in the Holy Spirit, keep in God’s love as they wait for the mercy of Lord Jesus Christ (Jude 20-21), Paul mentioned them individually and addressed them as God in his letter to Titus (Titus 3:3-8), Peter addressed God’s elect as chosen according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, through the sanctifying work of the Spirit for obedience to Jesus Christ by his blood (1 Peter 1:2), Jesus’ baptism where the Holy Spirit descended on him and a voice came from heaven saying “You are my son, whom I love, with you I am well pleased.” (Luke 3:22) and for sure there are other verses that mention the different persons of God to represent him.

We also find passages in the Old Testament that address God in plural form which would imply God in different persons: God said “Let us make man in our image, in our likeness…” (Genesis 1:26) , LORD said “Come, let us go down and confuse their language…” (Genesis 11:7), the voice of the Lord saying “… who will go for us?” (Isaiah 6:8).

  1. Where did the word Trinity come from?

There is no clear source on how this word started. Nevertheless, the understanding and awareness of it evolved in the postapostolic period where several writers bring together the words “Father, Son, and Holy Spirit ” in a single sentence (1 Clem. 46.6; 58.2; Ign. Magn. 13.1).1 During the first two centuries A.D. there was little conscious attempt to wrestle with the theological and philosophical issues of what we now term the doctrine of the Trinity.2 And according to Moltmann, it was finally established in the West through the Athanasian creed.3

The concept and nature of it started from the beginning though for this is how God revealed himself to us throughout the Scripture, nature, history and even until now for this is who he is. His revelation and claim of His oneness can at least be found in the following verses where we can see how he presents himself in each of them:

God the Father - I am who I am (Exodus 3:14), you shall have no other gods before me (Exodus 20:3, Deuteronomy 5:7), do not follow other gods (Deuteronomy 6:14), there is no god besides me. I put to death and I bring to life, I have wounded and I will heal, and no one can deliver out of my hand (Deuteronomy 32:39), but you have forsaken me and served other gods, so I will no longer save you (Judges 10:13), his warning to Israel if they turn away from him and serve other gods (1 Kings 9:5-7), do not worship any other gods or bow down, serve or sacrifice to them (2 Kings 17:35), they followed other gods and served and worshiped them (Jeremiah 16:11), do not follow other gods to serve and worship them; warning them not to provoke him to anger (Jeremiah 25:6), I am he. Before me no god was formed, nor will there be one after me (Isaiah 43:10), I am the first and the last; apart from me there is no God (Isaiah 44:6), shall acknowledge no God but me, no Savior except me (Hosea 13:4), idol is nothing for there is no God but one (1 Corinthians 8:4), from him who is, and who was, and who is to come (Revelation 1:4), I am the Alpha and the Omega, who is, and who was, and who is to come (Revelation 1:8), and holy is the Lord God Almighty, who was, and is and is to come (Revelation 4:8).

God the Son - voice from the cloud said “This is my Son, whom I love; with him I am well pleased. Listen to him!” (Matthew 17:5), Jesus forgives sins (Matthew 9:2, Mark 2:4, Luke 5:20) which the teachers of the law think that only God can do (Matthew 9:3, Mark 2:6, Luke 5:21), so the Son of Man is Lord even of the Sabbath (Matthew 12:8, Mark 2:28, Luke 6:5), Jesus answered, “the Lord our God, the Lord is one” (Mark 12:29), Jesus said, “I am the one I claim to be and I do nothing on my own but speak just what the Father has taught me” (John 8:28), Jesus answered, “before Abraham was born, I am (John 8:58), I and the Father are one (John 10:30), from Jesus Christ, … the ruler of the kings of the earth (Revelation 1:5). The Greek word for Lord is Κύριος and this was used to address the Son and for the Jews particularly, the term Κύριος suggested that Christ was equal with the Father.4

God the Spirit - Spirit of God was present during the creation (Genesis 1:1-3), Spirit of God or Spirit of the Lord came upon the people (Numbers 24:2, 1 Samuel 10:10, 1 Samuel 11:6, 2 Chronicles 15:1, Judges 3:10, 6:34, 1 Samuel 10:6, 2 Chronicles 20:14, Ezekiel 11:5, Micah 3:8), Spirit of the Lord will rest on him, Spirit of wisdom, understanding, counsel, power and knowledge (Isaiah 11:1-2), Spirit of God spoke through David (2 Samuel 23:2), Jesus drives out demons by the Spirit of God (Matthew 12:28), Jesus said “whoever blasphemes against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; he is guilty of an eternal sin” (Mark 3:29), Peter is saying that lying to the Holy Spirit is lying to God (Acts 5:3-4), Paul said “Don’t you know that you yourselves are God’s temple and that God’s Spirit lives in you?” (1 Corinthians 3:16), Spirit of God lives in you (Romans 8:9), do not grieve the Spirit of God, whom we are sealed for the day of redemption (Ephesians 4:30), the Lord is the Spirit, and where the Spirit of the Lord is (2 Corinthians 3:17), Paul said that our body is the temple of the Holy Spirit, who is in us, whom we have received from God (1 Corinthians 6:19-20), Jesus said “Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name, will teach you all things and will remind you of everything I have said to you” (John 14:26), Counselor is from the Father (John 14:16, 15:26), Spirit of Truth comes from the Father and lives in us (John 14:17, 15:26).

After careful observation and attention, we just could not neglect the fact that God presented himself in three persons and Jesus, as a human being also commanded his disciples to baptize men in God’s three distinct personhood (Matthew 18:19) which are namely: God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit. We cannot find any contradiction but only congruence in the three persons’ claim or attribution to be God. It is also worth noticing in the Great Commission passage (28:18-20) that “name” is in singular form though three persons are included.5 We can say that the term Trinity was fully developed only when God revealed himself through his Son, Jesus whom he intended to represent his image (Colossians 1:15). Jesus is actually the revealer of the Trinity.6 Even the evil spirit cried out “… Jesus of Nazareth… I know who you are – the Holy One of God!” (Mark 1:23-24, Luke 4:34) where Holy One (2 Kings 19:22, Job 6:10, Psalm 16:10, Psalm 22:3, Proverbs 9:10, Isaiah 1:4, 5:19, 40:25, 41:14, 43:15, 49:7, Jeremiah 50:29, 51:5, Ezekiel 39:7, Hosea 11:9, Habakkuk 1:12) was God’s claim for himself and an ascription to him throughout the Old Testament, “You are the Son of God.” (Mark 3:11), “Jesus, Son of the Most High God” (Mark 5:7). Thomas said to Jesus, “My Lord and My God!” in John 20:28 where Jesus already resurrected from the dead. It is through the Son that the Father creates the world and creates through the operation of the Holy Spirit.7 There is no doubt that we serve, revere and worship a God that is one but exists exclusively in three persons. Ware also shared that “Each Person is equal in essence as each possesses fully the identically same, eternal divine nature, yet each is also an eternal and distinct personal expression of the one undivided divine nature.”8

  1. Importance of understanding the Trinity.

  1. Does it really matter?

If we truly believe in God, his claims and the revelation that we are created in his image (Genesis 1:26), then there is an absolute need to diligently study, know and understand who he is and who he reveals himself to be for us to fully connect and fulfill what he wants to accomplish in our lives. As Ware said, “We must endeavor to understand what he’s told us.”9

Throughout the Scripture, just to name some of the passages: Exodus 9:16, 1 Chronicles 23:5, Job 36:5, Psalm 33:11, Proverbs 19:21, Isaiah 14:24, Jeremiah 32:19, Acts 2:23, Romans 9:17, 2 Corinthians 5:5, Ephesians 1:11, Philippians 2:13, 2 Timothy 1:9, Hebrews 6:17, Revelation 17:17, God has been relaying the message that He is a God of purpose and that his word stands forever (Isaiah 40:8, Matthew 24:35, Mark 13:31, Luke 21:33, 1 Peter 1:25). With these emphasis, we cannot just ignore the way he presents himself but rather be reminded to look at it seriously and discover his purpose.

Without studying and understanding the Trinity, we might be deceived with our belief and not know the God we worship. There is a strong tendency for us to be shaken by other beliefs or circumstances for we do not know the God we put our faith. Jesus clearly presented this reminder when he shared about the parable of the sower (Matthew 13:1-23, Mark 4:1-20, Luke 8:1-15). Thus, knowing, understanding and believing God as he claimed to be is core, essential and the foundation of our belief.

  1. Can we really understand it?

We are created so we cannot deny that we have limitations and are finite in understanding our unfathomable Creator but he is also our God who is love (1 John 4:16). It is his desire that we know him (Jeremiah 24:7, John 7:28, Hebrews 8:11) and call upon or ask him (Psalm 50:15, 91:15, Jeremiah 29:12, 33:3, John 16:24) so he would definitely make sure that all his revelation (Isaiah 43:10, Luke 8:10, Romans 1:20, 1 Corinthians 2:12, Hebrews 11:3, 1 John 5:20) are sufficient, not contradicting and confusing, and enough for us to grasp and understand him and never be puzzled in identifying His identity. It is well said in Deuteronomy 29:29 that the secret things belong to the Lord our God, but the things revealed belong to us and to our children forever, that we may follow all the words of this law. As Millard stated, it appears that Tertullian was right in affirming that the doctrine of the Trinity must be divinely revealed, not humanly constructed.10 Someone also said something about the doctrine that “try to explain it and you’ll lose your mind; but try to deny it, and you’ll lose your soul”.11 We would never fully understand it but we are given ample information from his word to digest, follow and relate with our three in one God and it is our responsibility to explore what he has revealed.

  1. Interaction of the three in one God.

God has revealed his three distinct roles as the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit in the entire Bible. Let us now look at the individual unique roles and find out about their interaction with one another later.

Firstly, the Father: is the creator of everything including the universe and man (Genesis 1:1-25, 1:27), is the first person of the Trinity12, is the supreme among the persons of the Godhead13 (Psalm 2:5-6) and will be manifested to all of creation as supreme and over all14 (Philippians 2:9-11), has defined his fatherhood by the relationship to his Son15 (Matthew 3:17, Mark 9:7, Luke 9:35, 2 Peter 1:17), is addressed by the Son as his heavenly Father (Matthew 6:9-10, 11:25-27), is whom we pray to and call our Father due to the fellowship we have with the Son16 (Romans 8:15 and 17, 1 Corinthians 8:6), is the source of every good and perfect gift (James 1:17), is whom the Son points or refers to in his teachings, is the Son’s model (Matthew 5:16, 48) and is the Grand Architect.17

Secondly, the Son is: the incarnate Son of God18 (John 6:27), the image of God for which God destines human beings,19 the perfected self-communication of the triune God to his world,20 the mediator (1 Timothy 2:5, Hebrews 8:6, 9:15, 12:24), the fulfiller of God’s plan (Isaiah 9:1-2, Matthew 4:14-16, 5:17), the accomplisher of the Father’s work both in the creation and reconciliation21 (Ephesians 1:19-20), the channel of the Father’s blessing for us (Ephesians 1:3), from above and not of this world (John 8:23) and as Bruce stated “The Father has chosen us in Christ”,22 our model as obedient Son of God (Mark 14:36, Matthew 26:42, Hebrews 10:7), our Savior (Luke 2:11, Acts 5:31, 13:23, Philippians 3:20, 2 Timothy 1:10, Titus 1:4, 3:6, 2 Peter 1:1, 2:20, 3:18, 1 John 4:14), our prayer warrior (Hebrews 7:25, John 17:20-26), the Word who became flesh (John 1:14), the builder of his church23 (Matthew 16:18, Ephesians 1:22), in a relationship of eternal submission under the authority of his Father24 for he only do what his father asks him to do (John 8:14, 8:28, 8:42, 12:49, 14:10, 14:24).

Thirdly, the Holy Spirit is the one who: initiates person to Christian life,25 convicts the world of guilt (John 16:8), sanctifies (2 Thessalonians 2:13, 1 Peter 1:2), counsels (John 14:26, 16:7), illuminates26 (John 14:16-17, 16:13-14), intercedes (Romans 8:26-27), teaches and reminds believers of everything the Son has said (John 14:26), has the divine power that gives life to the dead27 (1 Corinthians 6:14, Romans 8:11), has the divine energy of the new creation28 and the reason why we call it new creation is because it is written in 2 Corinthians 5:17 that if anyone is in Christ, he is a new creation; the old has gone and the new has come. The event of the Father glorifying the Son through his resurrection and the Son glorifying the Father through his obedience and self-surrender is the work of the Holy Spirit.29

After identifying their individual roles, we now move on to how they relate with one another. We first tackle their relational personhood30 nature. God the Father is the first person of the trinity and has the supreme authority among the three persons but this does not mean that Son and the Holy Spirit are in any way inferior or of second or lower rank in the Godhead for none of them claimed to be over the other throughout God’s revelation. As Millard stated in his understanding of the passage in Matthew 28:19 as it is presented, he did not find any subordination or inferiority.31 To think of the Trinitarian persons, then, is to think of relations; they are distinct persons by virtue of their relationships with one another.32 They highly value their relationship with one another that they have harmony, unity, self-sacrificing attitude, respect, submission, praise, obedience, dependence and love with one another. We clearly see these in some of the following passages: Jesus showing Father the respect and submission in teaching his disciples how to pray (Matthew 6:9, Luke 11:2), Father praising the Son and pleased to have his fullness dwell in the Son (Matthew 3:17, 17:5, Mark 1:11, Luke 3:22, 2 Peter 1:17, Colossians 1:19), Father reconciling everything on earth and heaven to him through Jesus (Colossians 1:20), Jesus respecting and protecting the Spirit’s name (Matthew 12:31-32, Mark 3:29, Luke 12:10), Jesus praising the Father to be reliable and obeying and trusting him (John 8:26-29), Jesus was with God in the beginning and it is through him that all things were made (John 1:1-4, Colossians 1:16), Father mentioning his spirit and his word as coming from him (Isaiah 59:21), Father commanding people to listen to Jesus (Matthew 17:5, Mark 9:7, Luke 9:35), Jesus claiming to be sent by the Father and serves as his representative (John 5:36-40), Jesus praising the Father who is greater than all is his source (John 10:28-29), Jesus sharing about the Holy Spirit’s involvement and power, (Mark 13:11), Angel relaying the communal work of the Holy Spirit, Father and Son to Mary (Luke 1:35), baptism of Jesus where the Holy Spirit and the Father were all involved (Matthew 3:16-17, Mark 1:10-11, Luke 3:22), Holy Spirit making the relationship of the Father and Son possible and glorifying them (Luke 10:11, 1 Corinthians 12:3, 1 John 4:2, Romans 8:9), Holy Spirit enabling or filling the people to see and praise the Father and the Son (Acts 4:31, 7:55), joint work of the Father, Son and Holy Spirit (Acts 10:38, 20:27, Romans 8:3-4), Holy Spirit empowering Jesus (Matthew 12:28), Jesus making the Father known and popular (John 17:26), Jesus addressing the Holy Spirit as the Spirit of Truth (John 14:16-20) that represents him in the believers life which he personally claimed for himself as the only way, truth and life to the Father in John 14:6, Jesus saying that the Father, the Holy Spirit and himself all have the same power and works together (John 20:21-22, Acts 1:4-8).

Moltmann commented on their relationship that the Father creates the world out of His eternal love through the Son, for the purpose of finding a response to his love in time, in the power of the Holy Spirit.33 He also shared that the Father sends the Son through the Spirit, the Son comes from the Father in the power of the Spirit and the Spirit brings people into the fellowship of the Son with the Father.34

Secondly, we also see their eternal interaction. They existed from the beginning of everything and would continue to exist forever (Genesis 1:2, Deuteronomy 33:27, 1 Kings 10:9, Isaiah 26:4, Jeremiah 10:10, Daniel 4:3, Psalm 110:1, 111:10, 104:30, 119:89, Mark 12:36-37, 9:2-4, John 20:28, 3:36, 6:27, 6:40, 6:68, 10:28, 17:2-3, Luke 9:30-31, Matthew 17:2-3, Romans 1:20, 6:23, 16:26, Galatians 6:8, Ephesians 3:11, 2 Thessalonians 2:16, 1 Timothy 1:17, Titus 1:2, Hebrews 9:14, 1 Peter 5:10, 1 John 5:11, 5:20, Jude 1:21).

  1. Definition of fruitful.

  1. How is it defined in the Bible?

I cannot find an exact definition from the Bible but definitely noticed that God wants His creation and children to be fruitful, to multiply and to increase in number. I find similarities in these three terms. He commanded his creation which includes Adam and Eve to be fruitful in Genesis 1:22 and 28, instructed Noah after the flood to be fruitful in Genesis 9:1 and told Jacob to be fruitful and increase in number in Genesis 35:11. Not only did God command his people to be fruitful, he is also the source of their fruitfulness for he made them fruitful (Genesis 17:6, 17:20, 41:52, 48:4, Exodus 1:7, Leviticus 26:9, Psalm 105:24, Jeremiah 23:3, Ezekiel 36:11, Hosea 14:8, John 15:2).

Fruitful can also be defined as to bear fruit which is also found in the Old and New Testaments as God’s desire for his created ones (Genesis 1:11, 2 Kings 19:30, Psalm 92:14, Isaiah 11:1, Jeremiah 17:8, Ezekiel 17:8, John 15:4, Romans 7:4).

For plants to be fruitful, it has to continue to remain in its vine and source for without the source, it is impossible for it to bear fruit (John 15:5).

  1. World’s definition.

According to, fruitful is defined as producing good results; beneficial; profitable; abounding in fruit, as trees or other plants; bearing fruit abundantly. Some of its synonyms are successful, plentiful and rewarding. It defined successful as having attained wealth, position, honors or the like.

As advertised in our television nowadays, we seldom hear the term fruitful but we do hear a lot about success and it’s usually equated to hoarded: beauty, performance, wealth, power and fame. Comparison is much emphasized and to push others down for one to be on the spotlight and be labeled as successful is the current trend of the generation.


  1. Relevance of the Trinity with our Christian lives.

  1. Understanding our creation, identity and purpose of existence.

We are created in God’s image and are to rule on his creation (Genesis 1:26). He

formed us from the dust of the ground and breathed into our nostrils the breath of life (Genesis 2:7). He searched and know us, perceive our thoughts from afar, is familiar with all our ways, created our inmost being, knitted us together in our mother’s womb, fearfully and wonderfully made us, saw our unformed bodies, ordained all the days of our lives (Psalm 139:1-16). We are uniquely created with God’s creativity and precious time. God loves us so much that he made Jesus to be sin for us so that we might become his righteousness (2 Corinthians 5:21) and have eternal life (John 3:16). He is very patient with us not wanting us to perish (2 Peter 3:9), wants us to fulfill his purpose for us (Psalm 138:8) and continuously waits for us to return to him. We did not choose him but he chose us and appointed us to go and bear fruit that will last (John 15:16). We do not own our lives but rather we are bought at a price (1 Corinthians 6:19-20). He has invited us to a love relationship with him (1 John 4:19) and we could never love him first. We are Jesus’ friends and no longer called servants for he has made known everything he learned from the Father to us (John 15:15). Jesus continues to pray for us (Hebrews 7:25) and has given us his Holy Spirit to help and empower us.

  1. Our role and responsibility.

After knowing and understanding the basics of the Trinity which is God’s identity and how he created us, we then now focus on our role and responsibility. With God’s revelation of his relational and eternal nature, my perspective in life has really widened and deepened. It also helped me truly believe that life with God in our lives is the ultimate and greatest blessing I ever had and would continue to desire and aspire.

In my early Christian journey and walk with the Lord, it is so easy to say words I do not mean or use or utter common Christian jargons to people since I grew up in a Christian school environment but by God’s grace, love and protection, he has really changed me in the past 8 years and as I grow and get to know him more, it is proven in my life that I do not just do and decide things on my own perception and ways. I am reminded to rely on his Spirit’s lead and guidance for he would definitely fulfill what he has planned accordingly in my life. It also made me realize that knowing our God is so important and crucial in my personal spiritual growth, relationship with Him and with others. The more I know and understand our God, the easier it is for me to obey his words and commandments and relate with the stories and teachings in the Bible. But this does not mean that I can achieve this on my own for without the Father’s mercy, his Spirit’s help, wisdom and revelation, the Son’s sacrifice and prayers, the prayers of people who were before me and around me, I would not be able to recognize and accomplish this.

All the above just concludes Triune God’s relational and eternal nature, that everything we do has an effect and impact on others no matter who and where they are. And this could be in the current and future generation. Whoever we are today, there is no way for us to brag and give credits to ourselves for we are absolutely the product of the Trinity’s nature and all the people who were before us for we are all related and come from one source. If we could grasp this, we could really experience the unity, harmony, submission, respect, love, obedience, praise and dependence the Father has for the Son and for the Spirit and vice versa. They never competed and always give the glory to other person for they know one would not exist if anyone is missing in their relationship. God modeled himself to us for us to follow and if we only choose to obey him, our goal of bringing more people to believe in Christ is not hard task at all.

Understanding the relevance of the Trinity with our Christian lives also helps us stay healthy, young, positive and joyful, develop the nine fruit of the Spirit Paul mentioned in Galatians 5:22-23 in our lives and value everyone around us no matter who and where they are for we believe and trust in what God claims himself to be. With it, we could also easily perform every task the Spirit instructs us to do for we rely on him and draw strength, wisdom, confidence and courage from Him all the time. We are constantly encouraged that we will never be alone in this challenging journey for we are always surrounded with supports seen or unseen. It is also our role and responsibility to make sure that we stress the importance of growing deep in our relationship with God wherever we are and to help people around us stay strong and confident in God; that when we pray and do the ministry he has given us, we give proper credits to the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. It would then be a must for us to exercise Paul’s definition of love (1 Corinthians 13:4-8a) that it is patient, kind, does not envy, does not boast, not proud, not rude, not self-seeking, not easily-angered, keeps no record of wrongs; does not delight in evil but rejoices in truth; always protects, trusts, hopes and perseveres; never fails.


  1. Relevance of our Christian lives with being fruitful.

Now that we know our roles and responsibilities as believers, it is actually not that hard to be fruitful for we know our source, the Triune God who would never forsake us (Deuteronomy 31:6, 31:8, Joshua 1:5, Psalm 27:10, 94:4, Hebrews 13:5) but would fulfill his intended fruits for our lives (1 Kings 6:12, Ezra 1:1, Jeremiah 11:5, 29:10, Ezekiel 12:25, 2 Thessalonians 1:11) if we choose to follow him. He crafted and created us uniquely so we all have different gifts, tasks and fruits that are used to expand his kingdom and complete his purposes. We would then witness an environment that is fruitful; without competition, envy, deceit and strife but rather full of blessings. Just as God said in Genesis 1:11 that seed-bearing plants and trees on the land bear fruit according to their various kinds, Jesus also mentioned this in John 15:4 reminding us to remain in him and depend on him to continue to bear fruit for no branch can bear fruit by itself, it must remain in the vine. It is only when we depend on God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit that we would continue to bear fruit in season and prosper.

If every believer is serious with their walk with the Lord, it would automatically follow that his churches would prosper, flourish and fruitful so let us ask for the Triune God’s help for us to really bring glory to his name and not shame.

It is impossible to bear fruit on our own and we have to be alert and aware of the so called fruits we bear now through our independence from God for those fruits would not last and would not bring us joy and peace but unnecessary trouble and pain. Let us always be connected with our Creator God.






















Erickson, Millard J. “Christian Theology”. Baker Academic, 1998, 347-367, 707-708, 861-880.

Fernando, Ajith. “Jesus Driven Ministry”. Crossway Books, 2002, 1-126.

Hawthorne, G. F. “The Holy Spirit and the Trinity” in Dictionary of the Later New Testament and

Its Developments, eds. R. P. Martin and P. H. Davids. Downers Grove: InterVarsity

Press, 1997, 497-498.

Moltmann, Jűrgen. “The Trinity and The Kingdom”. First Fortress Press Edition, 1993, 1-128,


Seamands, Stephen. “Ministry in the Image of God”. InterVarsity Press, 2005.

Ware, Bruce A. “Father, Son, and Holy Spirit: Relationships, Roles and Relevance”. Wheaton

Illinois: Crossway Books, 2005, 13-19, 43-62, 69-74.

Whitacre, R. A. “Vine, Fruit of the Vine” in Dictionary of Jesus and the Gospels, eds. Joel B.

Green, Scot McKnight and I. Howard Marshall. Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1992, 867-868.


1 G. F. Hawthorne, “The Holy Spirit and the Trinity” in Dictionary of the Later New Testament & Its Developments, edited by R. P. Martin and P. H. Davids (Downers Grove: InterVarsity Press, 1997), 498.

2 Erickson J. Millard, “Christian Theology”, Baker Academic, 1998, 358.

3 Jűrgen, Moltmann, “The Trinity and The Kingdom”, First Fortress Press Edition, 1993, 61.

4 Millard, 707-708.

5 Millard, 365.

6 Moltmann, 65.

7 Ibid., 113.

8 Bruce A. Ware, “Father, Son, and Holy Spirit: Relationships, Roles, and Relevance”, Crossway Books, 2005, 43.

9 Ibid., 15.

10 Millard, 367.

11 Ibid.

12 Moltmann, 164.

13 Ware, 46.

14 Ibid., 49.

15 Moltmann, 163.

16 Ibid., 164.

17 Ware, 51.

18 Moltmann, “The Trinity and The Kingdom”, 115.

19 Ibid., 117.

20 Ibid., 116.

21 Ware, 53.

22 Ware, 55.

23 Ware, 70.

24 Ware, 71.

25 Millard, 888.

26 Ibid., 889.

27 Moltmann, 122.

28 Ibid.

29 Moltmann, 124.

30 Stephen A. Seamands, “Ministry in the Image of God”, InterVarsity Press, 2005, 31.

31 Millard, 365.

32 Seamands, 34.

33 Moltmann, “The Trinity and the Kingdom”, 113-114.

34 Moltmann, The Trinity and The Kingdom, 75.

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